Parakeratosis is a keratinization of the mucous layer of the cervix: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Parakeratosis is a condition in which pathological changes in epithelial tissues are observed, in particular their keratinization. As you know, almost all organs have a layer of epithelium in their composition. And in modern gynecology, a disease such as parakeratosis of the cervix is often recorded. What it is? What symptoms are accompanied? Is it worth worrying about this? What kind of treatment can a gynecologist offer? Many women are looking for answers to these questions.
Parakeratosis of the cervix: what is it?
To begin with it is necessary to understand the meaning of the term. Parakeratosis refers to incomplete keratinization of epithelial tissues. The mechanism of development of the disease is not fully understood, but, according to studies, pathological changes in cells are directly related to a violation of the synthesis of keratogialin( this substance is a precursor of the keratin protein).
The affected area of the cervix appears more coarse and wrinkled. The tissues in this case lose their elasticity and the ability to stretch, so they are often traumatized( for example, during intercourse).
In the absence of treatment, affected areas are covered with whitish plaques and spots - these are the areas of keratinization of tissues. In this case, we are talking about hyperkeratosis. The pathological process can spread to neighboring areas, as a result of which the lesions are increased.
The main causes of the development of the pathology
Parakeratosis is a pathology, which in no case should not be ignored. And in order to prevent the development of complications and normalize the work of the body, it is necessary to identify and eliminate the cause of the development of the disease.
- First of all, it is worth mentioning changes in the hormonal background, which affect the work of tissues and the metabolism of cells. Risk factors include improper intake of hormonal drugs, diseases of endocrine glands, permanent stress.
- Sometimes parakeratosis develops on the background of a viral infection. In the role of pathogen can act, for example, the virus of the papilloma.
- Bacterial lesions( chlamydia, gonorrhea) can also cause pathological changes in tissues.
- Risk factors include frequent changes in sexual partners, gross sexual acts.
- Cervical cells are possible in the presence of cervical injuries( birth trauma, damage during abortions and some other gynecological procedures, improper installation of the intrauterine device).
- The cause may be an inflammatory disease of the pelvic organs.
- The non-observance of the rules of personal hygiene affects the functioning of the reproductive system.
- To the list of reasons it is necessary to attribute and decrease of immune activity.
- It is proven that a deficiency of zinc in the body can also provoke the disease.
To date, the exact mechanism for the development of pathology remains unexplored. Nevertheless, the presence of one or more risk factors is a good reason to enroll in a gynecological examination.
Signs of parakeratosis and features of the clinical picture of
Most often the disease proceeds without any visible symptoms, so it is detected accidentally during a routine examination.
Sometimes there is the appearance of vaginal discharge with a characteristic unpleasant odor. In the whites may be present impurities of blood. Some patients complain of soreness that occurs during or after sexual intercourse.
Diagnostic measures for parakeratosis
Parakeratosis is a pathology with a blurred clinical picture. In order to accurately identify the disease, it is necessary to conduct a thorough diagnosis.
- To begin with, the patient is questioned, the doctor collects an anamnesis.
- Further gynecological examination is necessary. During the procedure, the specialist, as a rule, can detect areas with altered tissues - they look like rounded plaques with seals or keratinized scales.
- Women also take scraping for further cytological examination of tissues. Under a microscope, a specialist can notice abnormal epithelial changes.
- Unfortunately, conventional scraping does not allow you to check the condition of cells from deeper layers of the mucous membrane. That's why doctors recommend a biopsy - the only way to detect malignant tissue degeneration( if it takes place).
- Colposcopy is also informative. During the procedure, the doctor can accurately determine the extent of tissue damage, find out the location of foci of parakeratosis.
- During colposcopy, an iodine test is also performed, in which the doctor applies a solution of iodine to the tissues. Healthy epithelial tissues are colored.
- In addition, the patient donates blood for analysis - this helps to identify the presence of inflammatory process in the body.
- In addition, tests for the presence of a bacterial or viral infection are required. Determine and the level of hormones in the blood. These tests are conducted in order to find out the cause of the onset of parakeratosis.
Drug therapy is primarily aimed at eliminating the cause of pathological changes in tissues. If it is a viral disease, then patients are prescribed antiviral drugs, interferon. For bacterial infections, antibiotics are needed. In order to remove the inflammatory process, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used.
In addition, it is important to monitor the condition of the immune system. Patients need vitamin therapy. Often, doctors recommend vitamins with zinc - for women, this mineral is very important, because often it is his deficit that triggers the mechanism of tissue keratinization.
Elimination of foci of parakeratosis
Drug therapy can eliminate infection and relieve inflammation. Nevertheless, the damaged tissues remain, and sometimes the doctor can decide to remove them. The choice of method in this case directly depends on the degree of tissue damage.
Quite often, laser therapy( vaporization), cryodestruction( liquid nitrogen freezing), and coagulation are used to remove the altered epithelium. If there is a precancerous condition or an already developing cancer, surgical intervention is necessary, during which the specialist removes pathologically altered tissues. In most severe cases, a full uterine resection may be required.
Forecasts and possible complications of
With timely detection, parakeratosis of the flat epithelium of the cervix is treatable. Nevertheless, in some cases, complications may arise, in particular, neoplasia, which is considered a precancerous condition. This disease, like parakeratosis, increases the risk of oncology. In addition, the list of complications include cicatricial deformities of the cervix, which affects the future work of the reproductive system and often requires surgical treatment.
Parakeratosis is a dangerous ailment that can lead to a mass of dangerous consequences. That is why it is better to follow the precautionary measures. Patients, especially if they are at risk( there was surgery and diseases of the endocrine system) should be more careful about their health.
It is necessary to avoid promiscuous sexual intercourse, as they can lead to infection or unwanted pregnancy. All diseases of the reproductive system( venereal ones in particular) should be given in due time to therapy. Remember that you can take hormonal medications only with the permission of the doctor, following the exact dosage. Observe the rules of intimate hygiene, eat properly, strengthen immunity, take special vitamins with zinc for women, and with the slightest deterioration in the state of health, consult a doctor.