Dyshormonal diseases of mammary glands: a list, causes, diagnostics and methods of treatment
The work of the female body is quite dependent on the functioning of the hormonal system. An important role is played by increased emotionality, receptivity. And all the experiences, stresses, hard work without rest, discord in the family are reflected in health. Statistics argue that every third woman faces breast diseases. The chest is a very sensitive organ, so any failure in the body can adversely affect it. Consider dyshormonal diseases of the mammary glands. What is their reason and how is the diagnosis? And also what are the current methods of treatment?
Mammary glands can be safely called a target organ, because any changes in the body of a woman will necessarily affect the condition and functioning of the breast. Disorders in the work of the endocrine system, as well as gynecological pathologies are often combined with dyshormonal diseases of the mammary glands.
A great influence is exerted by steroid sex hormones. Diseases of the mammary glands directly depend on the menstrual function of the body and on the mechanisms that regulate it. Each hormone in the body of a woman fulfills its function in relation to the mammary glands. The optimal level and ratio of all hormones ensure their full functioning. Progesterone, estrogen and prolactin are the hormones that have the greatest impact on the mammary glands.
Causes of dyshormonal diseases of the female breast
Several factors affecting the development of dyshormonal diseases of the mammary glands in women can be identified, which can cause the development of pathology. Diseases of the endocrine system.
If there is a combination of several factors, the risk of developing pathology increases.
Dyshormonal diseases of mammary glands
List of diseases and their types:
1. Mastopathy. There are two types:
To the node refer:
- Leafy fibroadenoma.
- Lipoma lipogranuloma.
- Intra-flow papilloma.
Diffuse mastopathy can be:
- Mixed form.
- The glandular component predominates - adenosis.
- The fibrous component - fibroadenosis prevails.
- Cystic component predominates - fibrocystic.
- Sclerosing adenosis.
2 . Mastodynia( Cooper's disease).
4. The galactorrhea.
6. Intraductive papilloma. Mints disease.
There is still an involutive form of the disease. Can be fibrous in nature. Most often occurs after 35 years.
Let us consider what symptoms may be present if dyshormonal diseases of the mammary gland develop. Their knowledge will help at an early stage to recognize the approaching pathology.
Symptomatology of mastopathy and mastodynia
First we answer the question, what is mastopathy of mammary glands? This dyshormonal disease, which is characterized by proliferation of connective and glandular tissue with the formation of cysts and various seals.
The following symptoms are typical for mastopathy:
- Pain in the mammary glands. They can be aching, stupid. Before menstruation, the pain intensifies.
- Feeling of heaviness in the mammary glands.
- Painful sensations when viewed. It is noticed that 10-15% of women do not experience pain.
- Discomfort and increased volume of mammary glands.
- Hypersensitivity of the mammary gland.
- Discharge from the nipple.
- Nodes for nodal mastopathy.
In this case, a woman can learn from her own experience what breast mastitis is, constantly experiencing:
- Nervous tension.
- Discomfort in the abdomen.
These symptoms are typical of premenstrual syndrome.
Mastodynia, or Cooper's disease, can form against the background of mastopathy. In this case, there is a degeneration of cystic and fibrous formations. It can be physiological, against a background of pubertal period, pregnancy or menopause. And can be pathological in nature, a symptom of breast disease or neighboring organs.
Mastodynia is cyclic, that is, manifested in the phases of the menstrual cycle, and non-cyclic. With cyclic flow, the above signs, similar to mastopathy, are characteristic. For non-cyclic it is characteristic:
- Pains are permanent or periodic.
- Localized pain. It is possible to allocate a painful site.
- Redness possible.
- Pain in one mammary gland.
- Swollen chest.
- Nipples are painful, with pressure appearing discharge.
- No hypersensitivity.
Mastodynia can be a sign of inflammatory processes in the tissues or neoplasms in the chest.
Symptoms of galactorrhea and gynecomastia
We describe the symptoms of dyshormonal disease "breast galactorrhea".What it is? Any discharge from the nipples and ducts of the breast. It is not considered an independent ailment, but it can be one of the symptoms of dyshormonal disorders in the body. This phenomenon occurs not only in women, but can be in children and men at any age.
On the other hand, there is an answer to the question in the very name of breast galactorrhea. What it is, you can understand, if you translate the name from Greek - it means the expiration of milk.
Pathologies are characterized by the following manifestations:
- Excretions from the breast do not contain any impurity of blood.
- You can detect occasional or constantly small selections.
- Allocations occur without pressure on the nipple or with pressure.
- There is a violation of the menstrual cycle.
- The selection process can be one-way or two-way.
- Headaches and visual impairment will occur if there are abnormalities in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
Dyshormonal diseases of mammary glands occur not only in women, but also occur in males - this is gynecomastia. There is an increase in the mammary glands due to proliferation of glandular tissue. The phenomenon is common, but it is revealed mainly when the patient has a question: "Why is one breast bigger than the other?"Let's designate who can have this pathology:
- In men after 40.
- In newborns.
- In young men during puberty.
In these cases, gynecomastia is considered physiological and, as a rule, passes by itself.
- Breast swelling.
- May swell on one side.
- Nipples and areol dark color.
- Possible allocation from the nipple.
- Feeling of discomfort, chest pressure.
If the answer to the question why one breast is bigger than the other is not a physiological change in the body, then this may be the development of a tumor process, which is quite rare.
Symptoms of galactocele and Mintz disease
Galactocele of the mammary glands - is a fatty cyst, benign. It is filled with curdled milk. May occur 7-10 months after cessation of lactation. And also there are cases of appearance in pregnant women and nursing mothers. Typically, the process is asymptomatic, but you can identify some of the features:
- If the cyst is large, it can be detected by palpation.
- As a rule, it is detected on ultrasound.
- Can be single and multiple.
- The initial stage of the process is painless.
- A doctor on examination observes the presence of fluctuations in the neoplasm.
- There is a possibility of forming a fistula during a ruptured cyst.
- If the cyst does not grow, its walls harden.
- Untimely treatment can lead to deformity of the breast.
Galactocele is not a dangerous disease, but requires attention and timely treatment.
Very different symptoms are present when intraductive papilloma develops. It is a benign tumor that forms on the wall of the gland duct from its inner side. Often it is associated with the course of fibrocystic mastopathy. One of the names of this disease is Mints disease. Symptoms that are typical for this disease:
- Discharge from the chest with bloody clots or transparent, possibly, greenish-brown color.
- When feeling and pressing, severe pain occurs.
- You can feel round nodes.
- Redness on a painful patch.
- If the cyst bursts, then the development of an inflammatory process is possible. In this case, the temperature rises, there is a weakness.
It should be noted that intraductive papilloma can ripen very quickly, and at the initial stage it does not manifest itself at all.
If you notice any change in the mammary glands during the examination, or if you know at least one of the above symptoms, you should visit a doctor.
Mammary gland examination should be performed 2-3 days after the end of menstruation in phase 1 of the cycle. In the second phase of the menstrual cycle, the examination is not considered expedient, since the iron at this time becomes more dense. In this case, there is a high probability of making a mistake in the diagnosis.
The physician should collect information on how the disease developed in the light of its first manifestations. It is necessary to establish:
- How manifestations of the disease are associated with the menstrual cycle.
- Find out the presence of concomitant diseases. Especially important are gynecological, thyroid, and liver diseases.
- Take into account social and living conditions.
- Temperament and character of the patient.
- Presence of signs of neurasthenia.
- Hereditary diseases along the line of the mother.
During the visual inspection it is necessary to pay attention to:
- On the development, size and symmetry of mammary glands.
- On the symmetry of the nipples and their deformation.
- On the color and structure of the skin.
- Vascular pattern.
Next, palpation is performed. Begin with the upper square and move in the direction from the periphery to the nipple. It is necessary to palpate in the following positions:
- Lying on the side, with the palpable hand lying under the head.
- Lying on the back.
It is also necessary to palpate the axillary lymph nodes and internal ones.
At the same time pay attention to:
- Mobility of the gland.
- Discharge from the nipple.
- Skin temperature above neoplasm.
If a dull compaction is found in the chest, it is necessary to urgently make a puncture or an enlarged biopsy, with a histological examination.
Diagnosis of diseases of mammary glands
In addition to visual examination and palpation, the doctor appoints additional special instrumental studies for diagnosis.
- breast ultrasound.
- A blood test is being performed to determine the level of hormones, oncomarkers, thyroid hormones.
- Histological and cytological examination of discharge from the nipple.
- Puncture of focal seals, lymph nodes with further histological and cytological examination.
Only after collecting all the information the doctor diagnoses and prescribes treatment. What methods exist, we will consider further.
Methods of treatment
Dyshormonal diseases of the mammary glands require long treatment. An integrated approach is required, hormonal features, concomitant gynecological diseases, and the cause of the disease development must be taken into account.
Each form of the disease and the patient requires an individual approach. But first of all it is necessary to eliminate exogenous factors. These are stressful situations, malnutrition, smoking, alcohol, promiscuous sexual life, the use of oral contraceptives.
Groups of drugs that are used in therapeutic treatment:
- Vitamins. The lack of vitamins promotes the development of mastopathy and the emergence of breast tumors. Necessary to restore the functions of the thyroid gland, nervous system, ovaries. Strengthen the immune system and have an antioxidant effect.
- Adaptogens of plant origin. Increase the body's resistance, antitumor resistance, and also normalize metabolic processes in the body. These are such drugs as "Ginseng tincture", "Eleutherococcus", "Chinese magnolia vine".
- Sedatives. If a patient has an asthenic syndrome, emotional arousal. Assign "Tincture of Leonurus", "Valerian".
- Diuretics are prescribed for soreness and engorgement of the mammary glands in the second half of the cycle. As a rule, preparations of plant origin. Such as, dog rose, motherwort, calendula, immortelle.
- Phytotherapy. Helps reduce swelling, normalize the hormonal background, reduce pain. Use the drugs "Mastadinon", "Cyclodinone".Apply if your hormone level is preserved, there are contraindications to taking hormonal drugs, and as a kind of therapy that allows you to lower the dose of hormones.
- Hormonotherapy. It is used only after careful study of the patient's hormonal background. Apply different treatment regimens with hormones. Use if the treatment with phytopreparations, physiotherapy treatment and, if there are endocrine and gynecological diseases, is ineffective.
- Combine hormonal therapy and herbal medicine.
- Surgical treatment is required for the nodular form of mastopathy.
Also it would be desirable to note, that to treat benign tumors and dyshormonal diseases of mammary glands is necessary, adhering to a rational nutrition. Limit the use of fats of animal origin. The diet should contain as many fresh vegetables and fruits as possible, cabbage and whole grains. It is necessary to consume the liver, eggs, milk, fish, tomatoes, foods with a high content of potassium. As much as possible, plant fiber should be in the diet, especially for patients prone to obesity.
Prevention of dyshormonal diseases
Dyshormonal diseases of the mammary glands require not only treatment, but also the use of preventive measures. This is, first of all, an annual examination by a doctor. For women who are at risk, an examination is necessary every six months. If there is a nodular form of mastopathy, it is necessary to observe and undergo an examination every three months. At the same time to undergo ultrasound and mammography.
Preventive methods of breast diseases include:
- Rational nutrition, avoid semi-finished products, fatty and smoked products.
- The use of vitamins in the form of fresh vegetables and fruits. In the autumn-winter period, take multivitamins.
- Avoiding pesticides and chemical additives in food.
- Performing a timely childbearing function.
- Control of the intake of hormonal drugs. It is advisable to proceed with their reception only after consulting a doctor.
- Regular sexual relations.
- Timely treatment: pathology of the thyroid gland, gynecological diseases, endocrine diseases, liver abnormalities.
And also it is necessary to avoid psycho-traumatic situations, to refuse smoking and alcohol. To lead a healthy lifestyle, to have daily physical activity. If a woman is more attentive to her health, she will not miss the first bells of the impending disease. Timely revealed pathology is much more amenable to therapy.