How to correct the jaw? Dislocation of the jaw. Joints of the jaw
The dislocation of the mandibular joint occupies an important place in the structure of the pathology of the maxillofacial region. Suffer most often able-bodied people and pensioners, women are more likely to men because of anatomical features. The movable lower jaw, the fixed upper jaw and the masticatory muscles that carry out their interaction form the maxillo-chewing apparatus.
The dislocation of the temporomandibular joint is called a pathological condition, in which joint surfaces do not coincide. This is due to the fact that the head of the lower jaw leaves the joint cavity of the temporal bone. In this article, we will consider the classification of dislocations and will understand how to correct the jaw.
Classification of jaw dislocation
Depending on the anatomical location of the dislocated head relative to the depression, the dislocation is:
Depending on the degree to which the articular surfaces are displaced, the dislocation of the lower jaw can be:
1. Complete - with complete mismatch.
2. Subluxation - with partial mismatch of articular surfaces.
Localization makes a dislocation of the lower jaw:
1. One-sided( right-sided or left-sided).
2. Two-sided - this type is more common.
Anamnestic sign and duration of existence makes a dislocation:
1. First emerged.
2. Elderly - if untreated primary dislocation for 1-2 or more weeks.
3. A habitual dislocation of the jaw - occurs often( maybe even several times a day), it sets itself up.
Depending on the complications of the dislocation, there may be:
1. Simple or uncomplicated.
2. Complicated( with rupture of muscles, ligaments, skin, nerves, vessels, jaw fracture).
How to correct the jaw with various dislocations? This question interests many.
Dislocations occur due to the following traumatic injuries:
1. Contusions and impacts on the lower jaws by objects or during a fall.
2. Sharp strong jaw movement during eating, chewing solid food.
3. Yawning or strong opening of the mouth.
In addition, trauma can occur due to the following non-traumatic injuries:
- Harmful habits that can occur by placing large objects in the mouth or using the jaws not for its intended purpose( people open bottles, cans, crack nuts).
- Presence of background diseases, weakening the ligamentous-articular apparatus( diabetes, osteoarthrosis of the joint, rheumatic and gouty lesions, osteomyelitis of the lower jaw, osteoporosis, age changes).
The treatment of these dislocations is performed by maxillofacial surgery in Moscow.
Clinical signs and diagnostic methods
When a dislocation occurs, a click is heard in the area of the jaw joint, which is accompanied by quite severe pain. After that, the mouth no longer closes due to painful sensations or mechanical obstruction.
Depending on which dislocation occurred( posterior or anterior), the jaw extends either forward or backwards. If it is one-sided, then the jaw looks skewed. All this is accompanied by excessive salivation, as the swallowing process is disrupted.
The speech of a person becomes vague or impossible. As a rule, these symptoms appear at the first dislocation of the jaw.
A certain time must pass, and if the dislocation is not corrected, it will become chronic. Abnormal scar tissue grows on the joints of the jaw, there is atrophy of ligaments and muscles. As a result of correction, it becomes impossible to hold the joint in a physiological position.
About the subluxation of
The subluxation of the mandibular joint deserves attention. As a rule, it is not diagnosed for a long time because of the absence of obvious symptoms. Time is lost, dysfunction of the lower jaw arises. And this already complicates the possibility of directing the lower jaw in a standard way.
Elderly or primary dislocations often provoke the appearance of habitual dislocations. The capsule of the joint and ligaments is strongly overstretched, the stability of the joint is lost. The head constantly jumps out of the articular surface when performing any jaw movements.
The basic method of diagnosis is the radiography of the lower jaw and joint. But it can be uninformative. Then spend ultrasound, computer or magnetic resonance imaging.
To treat such an injury better in the maxillofacial department of the district hospital.
Methods of treatment can be divided into operational and conservative. It depends on what kind of dislocation, and whether it can be eliminated in a sparing way.
The first stage is conservative treatment, which is used as the first stage for all kinds of dislocations. The displaced joint head is inserted into the articular cavity.
How to correct the jaw? About this further.
Stages of correcting the dislocation of the jaw
The patient should be seated on a chair with a hard backrest and a headrest. Head and body need to be pressed to the support, legs are pressed against the floor or stand. That is, a complete fixation of the trunk is required in a strictly defined position.
Joints of the jaw are anesthetized with anesthetic. Carry out infiltration of the affected surface with novocaine or lidocaine. With complete anesthesia, muscle relaxation and better control are provided. There are cases of correction without the use of anesthesia.
A doctor wraps his thumbs around a bandage or gauze. This must be done so as not to injure the patient's teeth. Then placed in the oral cavity on the painters of the lower jaw, with the other fingers you need to grasp the lower jaw and its angle.
Direct reduction is performed - the jaw is moved back and forth, then moves forward. At the last stage it rises up and back. Dislocation thus is corrected, and it does not matter what kind it is.
The head of the jaw circulates around the articular cavity. After the dislocation was corrected, the jaw must be fixed for 14 days, sometimes longer. For this purpose, the application of a tire or a conventional bandage is used. The mouth can not be opened strongly, therefore the food should not be firm.
The function of the joint is better restored if all recommendations are met. Old or habitual dislocations are fixed after repositioning in a different way. This will require a special device that will help fix the jaw in a certain position. Fixation is necessary for fouling of the joint with a connective tissue.
The maxillofacial surgery in Moscow carries out the best operations of such a plan.
This kind of therapy for dislocation of the jaw is used only with old or habitual forms. And also in those cases when traditional methods of correction do not help. With the help of a surgical operation, new ligaments are created or old ones are restored. They will ensure that the mandibular joint remains stable. The dislocation is also corrected, the jaw fixation is performed.
First aid for dislocation of
So, a person has a dislocation of the jaw. How to fix it yourself? It must be remembered that the procedure is very painful, and not everyone will be able to do it. Therefore, it is better to trust the hands of a professional.
But, first of all, the patient needs to provide first or first aid. The victim should calm down and try not to make any jaw movements.
With the help of improvised tools, the jaw is fixed, so that the process of transportation to the medical institution is painless. If it is required and there is an opportunity, a person can help reduce the pain. For this, you can take drugs such as "Paracetamol", "Ketorola", "Analgin."Do not try to fix the jaw yourself.
We have examined in detail how to correct the jaw. This process is quite responsible, painful. Therefore, it is necessary to apply to the specialized maxillofacial department of the hospital for suspected dislocation of any type. Drawing with this also does not follow, since serious complications are possible.