Proper rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery
Damage to bone tissue in the region of the neck of the thigh can put a person out of action for the longest period. In the event of an injury, not only the mobility of the limb is lost, but also the muscle is gradually atrophied as a result of the loss of ability to contract. Let's find out which activities require rehabilitation after a fracture of the neck of the hip.
According to statistics, rehabilitation is most often required after the operation of a hip fracture in the elderly. Usually, it is people who are exposed to such injuries in years. This is due to the development of senile osteoporosis, the main manifestation of which are structural changes in bone tissue. Who else may need rehabilitation after a hip fracture surgery? Reviews of traumatologists indicate that in the risk group are also people who lead a sedentary way of life and suffer from a decrease in muscle mass. If a weakened person accidentally falls on his side, the probability of getting a fracture increases immediately. Although the bruise with this may not be the most serious.
Suspected fractures of the femoral neck and people who suffer from the development of malignant tumors. Metastases often migrate to bone tissue, causing its weakening and destruction. Injuries of this nature can arise here only because the person is embarrassed, sharply turned aside or stumbled. Such a problem, like rehabilitation after a hip fracture surgery, mainly affects women. Representatives of the weaker sex suffer several times from getting injuries of the character presented. As for women of retirement age, in the latter, the risk of hip fracture increases 3-4 times more often than in men.
Like any other damage to bone tissue, the present trauma is accompanied by the development of a serious pain syndrome. The main place of localization of discomfort is the inguinal region. Here the pain is progressive. With a fracture of the neck of the thigh, the leg is visually shortened. This leads to a reflex reduction in muscle mass. The strained musculature automatically pulls the limb upward, reducing its length. A direct sign of injury is the lack of the possibility of raising the leg in a supine position. At the same time, the foot can unnaturally turn outward. In the best case, it will only be possible to flex the limb slightly in the knee.
Sometimes, with a fracture of the neck of the thigh, the pain is completely tolerable. While retaining the ability to lean on the leg, the victim can assume that discomfort is caused by a dislocation or bruise. The result of untimely detection of the problem and the lack of appropriate therapy are often complications in the form of suppuration, inflammation of soft tissues, necrosis of bones and joints. To avoid disability, at the first suspicion of a fracture of the neck of the thigh is recommended to go to the hospital.
Features of care for a patient
Rehabilitation after a hip fracture surgery at home requires that others pay special attention to the needs of the victim. The defining moment is the fight against the occurrence of pressure sores. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to resort to periodic changes in the position of the human body in bed. Avoid the development of complications also allows the laying of the mattress on a rigid frame, the use of a bed with an anti-decubitus system.
Since rehabilitation after the operation of hip fracture at home assumes absolute limitation of body mobility, the patient needs help in the realization of physiological needs. Not the least important are activities aimed at body hygiene. The area of the groin and armpits, natural bends, creases on the body should be regularly washed, wiped off with antiseptic agents, and treated with powders.
Consequences of injury
As practice shows, at best rehabilitation after a fracture of the neck of the thigh in a sanatorium takes at least six months. Limited mobility of the body, the inability to self-satisfy natural needs, the lack of full communication with others - all this can cause unbearable discomfort to the victim. The physical consequences of hip fracture include:
- occurrence of decubitus;
- development of intestinal atony;
- venous blood congestion;
- Vascular thrombosis.
As for the psychological consequences, the most frequent manifestations here are protracted depressions, neuroses. All this does not allow a person to return to the previous full life for a long time, even if a successful rehabilitation after the operation of a hip fracture has been performed. The victim literally has to learn to master his own body and emotions anew.
It is extremely rare to eliminate the consequences of a hip fracture without surgical intervention. Specific features of blood circulation in the presented area of the skeletal apparatus make it difficult to join the bones. At a fracture of a neck of a femur there are some ways of operative restoration of integrity of fabrics:
- Osteosynthesis. Surgical intervention of this plan involves fixing the bone in the fracture region. Metal screws are used as the elements that connect the damaged parts of the fabric. The method does not guarantee successful bone splicing in affected people after the age of 60-65 years. Therefore, such an operation is used to treat young people. How much in this case takes away the rehabilitation after the operation of a hip fracture? The complex of exercises allows to restore mobility of the limb for 4-5 months.
- Endoprosthetics. This is an operative intervention aimed at replacing part of the hip joint with an implant. Prosthetics here can be exposed to both the head of the bone and the joint completely. To perform the procedure, high-strength implants made of titanium or cobalt-chromium are used. Currently, this option is virtually the only chance for people in old age to restore the normal functionality of the limb. About a week after endoprosthetics, a person can already perform uncomplicated foot movements, and in some cases, move on crutches.
Regular physical exertion is an indispensable condition for the victims, who count on an early restoration of activity. During the therapy, specialists develop a whole complex of motor and respiratory exercises, with the help of which rehabilitation after the operation of a hip fracture occurs. Going to the cane with the gradual complication of training here is possible in a few months from the start of the restoration program.
Physical methods of treatment are an integral part of activities aimed at recovery from a fracture of the neck of the hip. Their use contributes to the elimination of edemas, the fight against infections, the healing of postoperative wounds, the restoration of normal blood circulation in the injured limb. During rehabilitation, the following methods of physiotherapy are used: UHF, electrophoresis, paraffin applications, magnetic therapy, mud therapy and balneotherapy.
Quite often, prolonged rehabilitation after a hip fracture surgery reduces a person's interest in the world around them. As a result, the loss of appetite is observed in the victim. For this reason, a special diet is required here. The food that is offered to the patient should not only differ in variety, but be delicious, nutritious and high in calories. The main attention should be paid to products rich in calcium and vitamins, which are required for the speedy recovery of bone tissue. Proper rehabilitation after hip pearl necrosis involves the rejection of food that is potentially capable of causing the patient to swell the bowel, constipation or diarrhea. Avoid these manifestations allows the use of fermented products, in particular, cottage cheese.
Massage procedures are a rather effective rehabilitation after the operation of a hip fracture. How is the recovery going? First of all, the injured person is prescribed daily development of the muscles of a healthy leg. This approach to rehabilitation makes it possible to activate the reflex stabilization of blood supply in damaged tissues. If the victim's leg is stretched, resort to an easy massage with spiral grinding, stroking the touch along the entire circumference of the limb. Regular execution of the massage is facilitated by:
- Eliminates the effect of muscle contraction.
- Saturation of tissues with oxygen and their supply of nutrients.
- Prevention of muscle atrophy development.
- Activation of regenerative processes in bone tissue.
- Reduced pain syndrome.
- Prevention of possible complications after the completion of the rehabilitation period.
Anesthetic medication support
As the victim is recovered, a whole body of pain must be overcome. To avoid discomfort during the recovery period, the patient is prescribed the use of effective analgesics. If the pain syndrome is unbearable, a local anesthetic is prescribed in the form of injections intramuscularly.
To avoid injury, people in old age are advised to move around with a cane or special walkers, which help maintain balance. As for the strengthening of bone tissue, medicines with calcium content can help here. Along with this, it is extremely important for older people to exercise physically. Moderate, regular loads on the musculoskeletal system contribute to its strengthening regardless of age.
Practice shows that the timing of successful rehabilitation after a hip neck injury depends on the effectiveness of treatment methods, the competent development of a therapy program. Significance also has the extent to which measures have been taken in a timely manner to restore limb mobility. It is necessary to begin rehabilitation about 2-3 days after the operation. To consolidate the results, it may be necessary to undergo several consecutive courses of restorative therapy.