Lung ultrasound: features of the procedure and indications
Ultrasound of the lung is a painless study that can diagnose various pathologies of the respiratory system. With the help of this procedure, it became possible to identify as early as possible serious pathological conditions of the lungs, pleural cavities and surrounding tissues at the very beginning of the development of the process.
With this method, ultrasound does not use x-rays or other aggressive effects that can trigger the onset of cancer. Currently, this procedure is available for most patients financially.
What pathologies can be detected by this method?
Ultrasound of the lungs reveals the following pathologies:
- unilateral and bilateral pneumonia;
- metastases in the organ;
- presence of intravascular fluid in people with heart failure;
- metastatic lesion of lymph nodes;
- diagnosis of lung cancer;
- for detection in the body of a foreign body;
- focal pneumonia;
- peripheral tumor;
- intrathoracic recurrence;
- presence of fluid in the pleural cavity;
- observation of the lungs during their treatment.
In addition, such a study allows you to assess the condition of organs and tissues that are located in close proximity.
Indications for the appointment of
Ultrasound of the lung is prescribed in the following cases:
- for diseases of the pleura, which include mesothelioma, empyema, and also in the presence of fluid in the pleural cavity;
- for suspected benign or malignant lung tumor;
- if breathing is difficult;
- at the appearance of sputum, not associated with catarrhal diseases;
- limb veins thrombosis;
- trauma of the chest;
- for preventive purposes.
Ultrasound of the lungs and bronchi can be performed at any medical center.
In order to pass an ultrasound examination of the lungs, the patient does not need to specially prepare for this. This procedure can be carried out at any time of the day. Perhaps the adoption of expectorant drugs, but this point should be discussed with your doctor.
Conducting an ultrasound of the lungs to a child also does not require specific training. The baby should feel comfortable, be well fed, do not suffer from heat or cold. For this, parents should bring water or milk, a diaper for the couch in the ultrasound room, disposable napkins to remove the gel from the baby's skin.
Procedure for the procedure
The main feature of this study is that the patient can be located on the couch in any convenient position for him. After he removes his outer clothing, a special gel is applied to his chest to allow the sensor of the narrow device to come in contact with the skin. This sensor is installed at right angles to the intercostal spaces and proceeds to the examination.
If an anechoic fluid is found in the pleural cavity, the patient is asked to change the position so that it moves. To obtain more accurate results, the study is carried out in the longitudinal, transverse and oblique planes of scanning, applying the sensor in different ways to the axis of the body.
Is it possible to carry out ultrasound of the lungs during pregnancy? This is allowed in the third trimester, when the respiratory organs of the fetus are examined. In this case, an assessment of their structure and readiness for functioning is conducted if there is a suspicion that the child can be born ahead of time. With the help of such a study, intrauterine pneumonia in the fetus is detected or completely eliminated.
What should this study show?
If the doctor has prescribed an ultrasound of the lungs, what does this procedure show? Normally, the following structures should be viewed:
- area of loose fiber;
- external fascia of the breast;
- border between the tissue of the lungs and soft tissues;
- internal fascia of the breast;
- subcutaneous tissue;
- pulmonary tissue;
The obtained data can indicate the presence of various types of abnormalities and pathologies.
Explanation of the results of the
study. The lung tumor is seen if it is adjacent to the diaphragm, and also when there is no pulmonary tissue between the neoplasm and the sensor in the direction of the ultrasound beam. The tumor is also diagnosed when the node is still during respiration.
Pneumonia of the lungs is manifested by a foci with numerous air inclusions that have fuzzy and uneven contours. The launched form of pneumonia is characterized by the fact that such inclusions are connected to each other, contributing to the appearance of purulent formations.
If suspicion of lung abscess occurs during the study, a slurry and a liquid cavity with air bubbles are found in the airless area of the organ. Blood vessels are not visible at all.
With pulmonary tuberculosis, there is an increase in lymph nodes located near the aorta. They have an oval appearance with a high content of liquid. After a while, their echogenicity begins to increase, as a result of which they cease to be visualized.
Ultrasound of the lung with pneumonia is rarely used. Since it is impossible to accurately visualize infiltrative shadows by this method, this disease is diagnosed by radiography. Ultrasound is prescribed as an additional method.
Advantages and disadvantages of ultrasonic lung examination
As already mentioned, this method of diagnosing lung diseases is absolutely harmless in comparison with tomographic and X-ray studies. With ultrasound of the lungs, no harmful rays are used, so it can be carried out countless times.
However, this procedure has drawbacks. The study can not show in more detail all that we would like. The main disadvantage is ultrasound, which penetrates deep into the tissue only 7 cm, as a result of which it is impossible to conduct a full study of the entire volume of the lung. On the monitor you can see only the upper layers of the organs and the pleural cavity.
Thanks to ultrasound, high-frequency oscillations arise that allow viewing the density of internal organs. The air contained in the lungs does not allow the ultrafrequencies to linger, resulting in poor visibility. Also an obstacle in the examination are the ribs, since ultrasound does not pass through the bones.
Thus, ultrasound examination of the lung is a very demanded procedure, which has quite high efficiency in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. It is considered absolutely harmless and it is prescribed even to pregnant women and seriously ill patients. In this case, such a survey is available to almost everyone.