Autoimmune processes in the body
The immune system is a complex mechanism consisting of cells and organs. Its main task is to protect a person from the influence of foreign agents. Perfectly distinguishing "strangers" from "their", it protects the body from a variety of different pathologies. But sometimes there is a failure. The immune system loses the ability to distinguish its cells. In the body, the development of antibodies that attack healthy tissue begins. In this case, the doctors conclude: there are disturbed autoimmune processes. Than it is fraught? And how to deal with such phenomena?
Autoimmune processes in the body - what is it?
Most people who have heard of such phenomena immediately associate them with severe incurable diseases. This is indeed so. But only in the event that autoimmune processes are broken. If they are normal, they perform very necessary and important functions.
Let's figure out what an autoimmune process means. In the course of a person's life in the cells, there can be any disturbances. In this case, they become alien, and may even cause harm. Here, the immune system turns on. It removes the body, relieves it of foreign agents. The immune system removes dead cells. It is difficult to imagine what would have happened to the body, if such a function did not exist. A person would turn into a real cemetery of dead cells. It is this function that is called the "autoimmune process in the body."
In case of failure, the immune system begins to attack its own cells. It perceives healthy tissues as foreign elements. As a result, their own immune system damages them. Against the background of this phenomenon, autoimmune diseases begin to develop.
Causes of violations of
Until now, doctors are not ready to say, as a result of which autoimmune processes are violated. The causes of such phenomena are not fully understood. There is an opinion that similar pathologies can be triggered by trauma, stress, hypothermia, various infections.
Doctors distinguish the following sources that trigger such violations in the body:
- Various infectious pathologies triggered by microorganisms in which the protein structure is very similar to human tissues and organs. For example, very often the source of the problem is streptococcus. This infection is introduced into the cell, disrupts its functioning and infects neighboring cells. The protein of streptococcal infection resembles cells of healthy tissues. The immune system is incapable of distinguishing them. As a result, a person can develop such ailments as arthritis, autoimmune glomerulonephritis, gonorrhea.
- In the body as a result of a number of reasons, abnormalities such as necrosis or destruction of tissue can be observed. The immune system, trying to cope with them, begins to attack not only the affected cells, but also healthy tissues. For example, hepatitis B often changes into chronic.
- Rupture of blood vessels. Many organs do not come into contact with this liquid. After all, the blood does not fill the whole body cavity, but flows through special vessels. But sometimes there is a rupture of veins. In this case, bleeding will begin. The organism will immediately react to this phenomenon, perceiving the cells as foreign, and will launch the production of antibodies. Such disorders can lead to thyroiditis, an autoimmune prostatitis.
- The source of the problem may be an immunological imbalance or a hyperimmune condition.
An autoimmune process in the body can be disturbed in any person. However, doctors identify certain groups of people who are most prone to this pathology.
This category includes:
- Women of childbearing age. It is noticed that young ladies are much more likely to suffer from these violations than men. In this case, pathology often develops in the reproductive age.
- People who have such ailments in the family. Some autoimmune pathologies have a genetic nature. This disease is multiple sclerosis. Hereditary predisposition, especially in combination with other factors, often becomes a trigger mechanism for the development of pathology.
- Persons who are in contact with certain components of the environment. Some substances can become a source of the disease development or aggravate the course of the existing ones. Such factors provocateurs are: bacterial, viral infections;chemicals;active sun.
- People of a certain ethnicity. Doctors say that mainly white people develop a pathology, like type 1 diabetes. Systemic lupus erythematosus, in severe stages, more often affects Spaniards and African Americans.
Each case of this ailment is quite unique. The symptomatology arising in a person depends on which tissues were attacked. However, there are common symptoms-markers indicating a disturbed autoimmune process.
Symptoms characterizing a malfunction in the body:
- The patient develops dizziness, general weakness, subfebrile temperature is observed.
- Most autoimmune pathologies proceed in chronic form. The stages of remission alternate with exacerbations. Sometimes the pathology progresses rapidly, leading to severe complications in just a few days, weeks, months.
Diseases and symptoms of
Let us consider in more detail which ailments can develop as a result of a condition such as an impaired autoimmune process. Symptoms completely depend on the pathology. Therefore, talking about them separately is impossible.
So, if the autoimmune processes are violated, the following diseases can develop:
Hair follicles are attacked. Such a pathology, as a rule, does not influence the general state of health. But significantly worsens the appearance.
For the disease characterized by the following symptoms: on the head and other areas of the body there are no sections of hair.
With this pathology, the immune system destroys the liver. As a result, there may be a compaction of the organ, cirrhosis, hepatic insufficiency.
It is recommended to pay attention to the following symptoms:
- liver enlargement,
- skin itch,
- joint pain,
- discomfort in the digestive tract.
Against the background of vein thrombosis, arteries damage blood vessels.
On the development of this pathology indicate:
- the presence of thrombi,
- mesh rash in the wrist, lap,
- spontaneous abortions.
In this pathology, people do not tolerate gluten. This substance contained in rice, cereals, barley. In the case of taking such products or certain medications, the immune system attacks the intestinal mucosa.
- pain, bloating;
- disorder or constipation;
- weight loss or weight gain;
- weakness, rash, itching on the skin;
- is a disordered menstrual cycle, miscarriage, infertility.
This is a pathology in which a disturbed autoimmune process in the thyroid gland proceeds. The affected organ starts to produce many hormones.
For the malaise are characteristic:
- increased sweating,
- weight loss,
- trembling in hands,
- minor menstruation,
- hair section,
- high heat demand,
- bulging eyes,
- muscle weakness.
Type 1 diabetes
In this case, those cells that produce insulin are attacked. This hormone provides a normal level of sugar in the blood. Without insulin, the norm is significantly exceeded. As a result, there may be lesions of the heart, kidneys, eyes, teeth, nerves.
This disease is indicated by symptoms:
- feeling of thirst,
- feeling of fatigue, hunger,
- pruritus, dry skin,
- frequent urination,
- poor wound healing,
- involuntary weight loss,
- tingling or loss of sensitivity in the limbs,
- vision impairmentblurred).
Characteristic of the nerve sheath lesion. Damage affects the brain and spinal cord. The symptomatology varies from the degree and area of the lesion.
There may be such signs:
- poor coordination, incontinence, weakness;
- speech problems;
- tingling, numbness of the extremities.
The disease develops as a result of active production of new skin cells in deep layers. They begin to pile up on the surface of the epidermis.
The disease is manifested by the following symptoms:
- red coarse spots resembling scales;
- they arise on the elbows, knees, head;
- appears pain, itching.
A specific form of arthritis that affects the joints of the fingers may develop. With the involvement of the sacrum in the process, there is pain, discomfort in the back.
This is another ailment in which the autoimmune process in the thyroid gland is disrupted. But for this pathology is characterized by inadequate production of hormones.
About the disease testify:
- fatigue, weakness;
- sharp weight gain;
- hypersensitivity to cold;
- discomfort in the muscular tissues;
- poor mobility of joints;
- facial swelling.
The immune system begins to attack the membranes of the joints.
The following manifestations are characteristic:
- pain, poor mobility in articulations;
- joints swell, deform;
- is significantly limited to traffic;
- appears fatigue, fever;
- can have pineal subcutaneous formations, most often on elbows.
Diagnosis of pathology
How can the development of the disease be determined? In the diagnosis of diseases, one of the most important moments is the detection of the immune factor that provoked tissue damage.
In addition, the hereditary factor is taken into account. It is very important to inform the doctor about all the symptoms that have arisen, even those that, at first glance, seem insignificant.
Special tests are mandatory. An autoimmune inflammatory process can not proceed unnoticed. It allows you to identify the test for antibodies in the blood. Also, various immunological laboratory methods of examination can be prescribed.
Who can I contact?
Quite often, people who have lost autoimmune processes do not know which doctor to visit. This is not surprising, because pathology can affect a variety of systems.
It is most correct to apply initially to the therapist. Depending on which organs are affected, the doctor will refer the patient to a specialist.
It can be: endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, dermatologist, hepatologist, rheumatologist, hematologist, gynecologist, urologist.
In addition, it will require the help of a psychotherapist, psychologist and nutritionist.
Methods of treatment
Is it possible to fight this pathology? Today, the treatment of the autoimmune process is quite successful due to numerous studies by specialists. When prescribing medications, doctors take into account that the immune system is the main factor that negatively affects the body. Accordingly, therapy is designed to reduce its activity or restore the necessary balance.
For autoimmune diseases, medications are prescribed:
- Immunosuppressors. Such drugs have a depressing effect on the functioning of the immune system. This category includes: antimetabolites, cytostatics, corticosteroid hormones, some antibiotics. The use of these drugs can stop the inflammatory process, and significantly reduce the activity of the immune system. However, immunosuppressors have a number of negative reactions. After all, they affect the whole body. Sometimes hematopoiesis can be disturbed, a high susceptibility to infection, a manifestation of internal organs. That's why these medications can be prescribed exclusively by a doctor, after a complete body check. In this case, therapy must necessarily be conducted under the supervision of a competent specialist.
- Immunomodulators. These medicines are prescribed to achieve a balance between the different components of the immune system. As a rule, these medicines differ in natural origin. Most often, drugs are prescribed: Alphetin, Echinacea purpurea, Rhodiola rosea, Ginseng Extract.
People who have impaired autoimmune processes need to follow certain rules. They will help improve well-being and reduce the number of exacerbations. But they should be done regularly.
Doctors recommend the following:
- In conjunction with a nutritionist, develop appropriate nutrition. Patients should consume enough vegetables, fruits, low-fat dairy products, whole grains and vegetable proteins. And from excess sugar, salt, saturated fat is better to refuse.
- Go in for sports. Be sure to discuss with the doctor what activity is recommended to you. It is very useful for sports people suffering from joint and muscle pain.
- Provide a normal rest. It allows the body to recover. People who do not sleep well, the severity of the symptoms and the level of stress significantly increase. As a rule, a person needs 7-9 hours for a good rest.
- Protect yourself from stress. Constant anxiety can lead to an aggravation of an autoimmune disease. That's why patients need to find methods and ways to cope with stress. Sufficiently effective techniques are: autosuggestion, meditation, visualization.
Unfortunately, getting rid of autoimmune disease is impossible. But this does not mean that you can not enjoy life with such ailment. Be sure to follow all the recommendations of the doctor, take the prescribed treatment, visit the doctor according to the schedule. This will significantly reduce the unpleasant symptoms, and therefore, you can continue to enjoy life.