The structure of the human spine: a diagram, the designation of the main departments. Features of the structure
The spine is one of the most important constructions of the human body. We rely on it and move with it. The curved shape of the spine is elastic and flexible, which softens the various shocks that can occur with intensive loads. It allows a person to walk straight and supports the center of gravity. In this article, we will consider the structure of the human spine. Scheme, designation, functions and anatomy will reveal its detailed characteristics.
Functions The spine has the basic reference function. Imagine a life without this body is impossible. If his work is broken, then the person not only can not walk, but simply stand. His health directly depends on his condition. If you look at the structure of the human spine( the diagram, the designation is presented below), then it is noticeable that it appears as a flexible rod. To it are attached humeral bones, limbs. This is a full-fledged foundation of the whole body, because it also holds the head, ribs, collarbone and shoulder blades.
The vertebral column protects the spinal cord from which the functioning of the most important systems and organs depends. Shock, damage, negative environmental conditions cause great harm to health. All these effects are protected by the bone system under consideration. Due to the joints located between the vertebrae, movement occurs. In the spinal column there are almost fifty. We will study the structure of the human spine, a scheme whose designation shows all its importance and significance.
General structure of
The spine has five departments with an appropriate number of vertebrae. On the sagittal and frontal planes there are bends. Thanks to them, the load is distributed evenly. Bends come in several forms: with a convex forward call lordosis, back - kyphosis, aside - scoliosis.
If you look at the structure of the human spinal column, a scheme whose designation illustrates this particularly clearly, we note in it natural bends. However, they can be excessive. Then they talk about pathological changes. The integrity of the structure is provided by the joints, ligaments and intervertebral discs, which, when moving, give a damping effect. This unique structure of the human spine allows us to move painlessly.
spinal column departments Five departments are distinguished in the spinal column:
The vertebral column begins with the cervical section, which is represented by a convex bend. He is the most mobile, due to which a person is able to tilt and turn his head, and also move his neck. This is provided by the first two segments. They have an annular shape and are attached by special processes to the occipital opening.
Neck department can be called the main one. Three of the seven vertebrae have a special structure. On the first, not having a body, but consisting of two arcs, the base of the skull rests. This vertebra is called the atlant. The next bone, an epistrophe, is also special. In front of it there is a tooth-shaped process, which serves as awning, due to which the atlas rotates. The cervical region is closest to the brain. It provides normal life activity to the "gray matter".Damage here can lead to death.
The thoracic( in medicine it is called the thoracic) is bent C-shaped. With it, the back wall of the thorax is directly connected due to the ribs, which are attached to the vertebrae. This department of the spine is inactive, again, because of the proximity of the thorax. But here, all the same, slopes are possible. Simply their degree is much less than in other departments. Limit these movements of the rib, as they protect such important organs as the lungs and the heart. Intervertebral discs here are low, but spinous processes are quite long.
The lumbar region( or lumbar) is represented by the largest vertebrae. It is endowed with a smooth bend connecting the sacral and thoracic parts. The whole upper part of the body presses on him, because of which he has a serious job. It is this department, along with the nursing, who takes on the greatest burden: when walking, jumping or running, he is responsible for amortization of the entire body. Therefore, in these parts, pathologies or injuries occur more often than others.
The two lower sections are only conventionally called vertebrae. The sacrum consists of a triangular bone consisting of five fused vertebrae. Thanks to him, the connection of the spine with the pelvis is carried out. The coccyx is the lowest part of the column. Its appearance resembles an inverted pyramid of curved shape. The coccyx connects ligaments and muscles related to the genitourinary system. It transfers the load to the pelvic bones, being at the same time a fulcrum. It can be called a rudimentary tail, which is partially ingrained in the pelvic bone. The female skeleton differs from the male skeleton in this part. The bones of the coccyx are slightly divergent before delivery, increasing the diameter of the delivery canal, thereby facilitating the process for both the mother and the child. Below is a complete map that details the structure of the human spine. Scheme, designation, functions on it are also available.
vertebrae The vertebral column includes 24 vertebrae connected in series. They belong to:
- neck section( seven units);
- thoracic( twelve);
- lumbar( five).
Each of the vertebrae has the shape of a cylinder. And it plays an important role as a reliable element of the reference load. It has the shape of an arc - this is a semicircle with outgrowths from it. An opening is created on the arch and vertebral body. Forming on each vertebra, they all together create a vertebral canal, in which the spinal cord, nerves and blood vessels are located.
These elements have a flat round body with a special fluid inside and a disk core. The structure of the human spinal column( schematic, designation can also be seen in the figure below), thanks to the elastic discs, provides cushioning during vertical movement. The fibrous ring, which prevents the displacement of the vertebrae, surrounds the pulpous nucleus. It can weaken with diseases of the spine, and sometimes even tear, which causes intervertebral hernias.
The spine can not exist without joints. They connect the vertebrae. The joints are covered with a smooth membrane, cartilage, due to which, when rubbing the vertebrae, painful sensations do not appear. Inside the joints is a fluid that nourishes and lubricates the cartilage. Due to this, the person bends, turns in different directions and makes other movements of his body.
Bundles are of two types:
- yellow, joining arcs;
- posterior longitudinal, connecting vertebrae in this part of the column.
In the presence of pathological changes, high mobility of the joints and discs of the ligament is attempted to compensate. As a result, hypertrophy occurs. Look at the structure of the human spine: the diagram, the designation in Russian is presented below. Thanks to the image it is easy to understand how many vertebras there are and to which department they belong.
Muscle tissue surrounds the vertebral column. Due to this, the load and the danger of mechanical damage are significantly reduced. On the back, there are superficial and deep muscles. The first help the work of the shoulders and straighten the back. They include the widest, trapezoidal, rhomboid, jagged muscles.
Inside the spinal column is the spinal cord, surrounded by a hard, arachnoid and soft membranes. This organ originates in the brain and ends on the first and second vertebra of the waist. Each of his departments is responsible for certain organs of the human body. This function is provided by the work of nerve impulses that come from the spinal cord and move directly to the internal organs. Nerve roots and cells in the spinal cord are huge. And features of a structure of departments of a backbone allow to leave it through intervertebral apertures.
Like any organ of the human body, the spine is aging in old age. Bad habits have a detrimental effect on him. Because of dehydration, the damping properties are lost, and the ligaments and bones cease to be sufficiently flexible and begin to thicken. Degeneration can also occur in the disk, which is why most pathologies develop.
When the structure of the human spinal column is studied, the scheme, designation, anatomy are of great importance. Involuntarily you catch yourself thinking that, as always, there is nothing superfluous in this complex organism. Each segment fulfills the task assigned to it. Being a small link, it provides, along with the rest of the structures, the work of the whole organism.
Knowing which structure the human backbone has, it becomes clear how important it is to give it proper attention. A sedentary lifestyle causes tension in the muscles of the back, some of which do not support the spine at all. This mode leads to the fact that some departments are subjected to increased load, while others are at risk of injury even with little fatigue.