Diagnosis of radiation. Methods of radiation diagnostics

Radiation diagnostics, radiation therapy are two components of radiology. In modern medical practice, they are used more and more often. This can be explained by their excellent informativeness.

Radiation Diagnostics is a practical discipline that studies the use of various kinds of radiation in order to detect and recognize a large number of diseases. It helps to study the morphology and functions of normal and diseased organs and systems of the human body. There are several types of radiation diagnosis, and each of them is unique in its own way and allows you to detect diseases in different areas of the body.

Radiodiagnostics: types

To date, there are several methods of radiation diagnosis. Each of them is good in its own way, as it allows you to conduct research in a certain area of ​​the human body. Types of radiation diagnostics:

  • X-ray diagnostics.
  • Radionuclide study.
  • ultrasound.
  • Computed tomography.
  • Thermography.

These methods of investigating radiation diagnosis may allow the release of patient health data only in the area that they are exploring. But there are more advanced methods that give more detailed and extensive results.

Modern diagnostic method for

Modern radiation diagnosis is one of the fastest growing medical specialties. It is directly related to the general progress of physics, mathematics, computer technology, and computer science.

Radiation Diagnostics is a science that uses radiation that helps to study the structure and functioning of normal and damaged organs and systems of the human body in order to prevent and recognize the disease. This method of diagnosis plays an important role both in the examination of patients and in radiological procedures of treatment, which depend on the information obtained during the research.

Modern methods of radiation diagnostics allow to reveal the pathology in a specific organ with maximum accuracy and help to find the best way for its treatment.

Diagnosis Models Innovative diagnostic methods include a large number of diagnostic imaging and differ from each other in the physical principles of obtaining data. But the general essence of all techniques is information that is obtained by processing transmitted, emitted or reflected electromagnetic radiation or mechanical vibrations. Depending on which of the phenomena are the basis for the resulting image, the radiation diagnosis is divided into the following types of studies:

  • X-ray diagnostics is based on the ability to absorb tissues X-rays.
  • Ultrasound examination. It is based on the reflection of a beam of directed ultrasonic waves in the tissues towards the sensor.
  • Radionuclide - is characterized by the emission of gamma radiation by radioactive isotopes that accumulate in tissues.
  • The magnetic resonance method is based on the emission of radio frequency radiation, which occurs during the excitation of unpaired atomic nuclei in a magnetic field.
  • Study of infrared rays - spontaneous emission of infrared radiation by tissues.

Each of these methods allows you to accurately identify the pathology in the human organs and gives a better chance of a positive outcome of treatment. How does radiation diagnostics detect pathology in the lungs, and what can be detected with it?

Lung research

Diffuse lung damage is a change in both organs, which are scattered foci, an increase in tissue in the volume, and in some cases, the union of these two states. Thanks to the X-ray and computer methods of research, it is possible to determine pulmonary diseases.

Only modern methods of research allow you to quickly and accurately establish a diagnosis and begin surgical treatment in a hospital. In our time of modern technology, radiation diagnosis of the lungs is of great importance. It is very difficult to diagnose according to the clinical picture in most cases. This is because lung pathologies are accompanied by severe pain, acute respiratory failure and hemorrhage.

But even in the most severe cases, urgent radiation diagnosis comes to the aid of doctors and patients.

When is the research performed?

X-ray diagnostic method allows you to quickly identify a problem in the event of a life-threatening situation for the patient, which requires urgent intervention. Urgent X-ray diagnostics can be useful in many cases. Most often it is used for damage to bones and joints, internal organs and soft tissues. It is very dangerous for a person to injure the head and neck, abdomen and abdominal cavity, chest, spine, hip and long tubular bones.

The X-ray method is administered to the patient immediately after the anti-shock therapy is performed. It can be carried out directly in the receiving compartment using a mobile device, or the patient is taken to the X-ray room.

In cases of neck and head injuries, an overview X-ray is carried out, if necessary, special shots of individual parts of the skull are added. In specialized institutions, an early angiography of the brain vessels can be performed.

In the case of chest injuries, the diagnosis begins with an overview of the radiograph, the images are taken from a direct and lateral view. With abdominal and pelvic injuries, a contrast test should be performed.

Also urgent radiographic examination is carried out in other pathologies: acute pain in the abdomen, blood spitting and bleeding from the digestive tract. If the data is insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis, a CT scan is prescribed.

Rarely use X-ray diagnostics in cases of suspicion of the presence of foreign bodies in the respiratory tract or digestive tract.

For all types of damage and in difficult cases, it may be necessary to carry out not only computer tomography, but also magnetic resonance imaging. Only a doctor can appoint a study.

The advantages of radiodiagnostics

This method of research is considered one of the most effective, therefore, considering its advantages, I want to highlight the following:

  • Under the influence of the rays, tumor neoplasms decrease, some cancer cells die, and the remaining ones cease to divide.
  • Many vessels, from which they feed to atypical cells, overgrow.
  • The most positive things are the treatment of some types of cancer: lungs, ovaries and thymus gland.

But not only the positive side of this method, the negative ones are also available.

Diagnostics of radial

Most doctors consider, however astonishing this method of research, it also has its negative sides. These include:

  • Side effects that occur during therapy.
  • Low sensitivity to radioactive radiation of organs such as cartilage, bone, kidney and brain.
  • Maximum sensitivity of the intestinal epithelium to this irradiation.

Radiation diagnosis has shown good results in the detection of pathology, but not for every patient it is suitable.

Contraindications

This method of research is not suitable for all patients with cancerous tumors. Assign it only in some cases:

  • The presence of a large number of metastases.
  • Radiation sickness.
  • Growth of cancerous roots in the largest vessels and organs of the reproductive system.
  • Fever.
  • Severe condition of a patient with severe intoxication.
  • Extensive oncological lesion.
  • Anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia.
  • Decay of cancerous tumors with bleeding.

Conclusion

Radiation diagnosis has been used for several years and has shown very good results in rapid diagnosis, especially in complex cases. Thanks to its use, it was possible to diagnose a very serious patient with a diagnosis. Even in spite of its shortcomings, there are no other studies that would give such results. Therefore, we can say for sure that at the present time, radiation diagnosis is in the first place.