Laboratory diagnostics is a unique way of research. Methods and features
The large number of existing diseases, the individual degree of manifestation of symptoms in different people complicate the process of diagnosis. Often in practice, it is not enough to use only the knowledge and skills of a doctor. In this case, the correct diagnosis is helped by clinical laboratory diagnostics. With its help at an early stage, pathologies are detected, the development of the disease is monitored, its possible course is assessed and the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment is determined. To date, medical laboratory diagnostics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of medicine.
The concept of
Laboratory diagnostics is a medical discipline that applies in practice standard diagnostic methods for detecting and monitoring diseases, as well as searching for and learning new methods.
Clinical laboratory diagnosis greatly facilitates the diagnosis and allows you to choose the most effective therapy regimen.
Sub-branches of laboratory diagnostics are:
- clinical biochemistry;
- Clinical Hematology;
- clinical serology;
- laboratory genetics;
- general clinical studies.
Information obtained through various methods of clinical laboratory diagnosis, reflects the course of the disease at the organ, cellular and molecular levels. Due to this, the doctor has the opportunity to diagnose the pathology in time or to evaluate the result after the treatment.
Laboratory diagnostics is designed to solve the following tasks:
- continuous search and study of new methods for analyzing biomaterial;
- analysis of the functioning of all human organs and systems using existing methods;
- detection of the pathological process at all its stages;
- monitoring the development of pathology;
- evaluation of the result of therapy;
- precise diagnosis.
The main function of the clinical laboratory is to provide the physician with information about the analysis of the biomaterial, comparing the results with normal parameters.
To date, 80% of all information important for the diagnosis and control of treatment is provided by the clinical laboratory.
Types of material
Laboratory diagnostics is a way to obtain reliable information by examining one or more types of human biological material:
- Venous blood is taken for hematological analysis from a large vein( mainly at the elbow bend).
- Arterial blood - is most often taken to assess CBS( acid-base state) of large veins( mainly from the thigh or the area under the clavicle).
- Capillary blood - is taken for a variety of finger studies.
- Plasma - it is obtained by centrifuging blood( ie, dividing it into components).
- Serum - blood plasma after the separation of fibrinogen( a component that is an indicator of blood clotting).
- Morning urine - collected immediately after awakening, is intended for general analysis.
- Daily diuresis - urine, which is collected in one tank during the day.
Laboratory diagnostics includes the following steps:
The pre-analytic stage implies:
- Observance by the person of the necessary rules of preparation for the analysis.
- Documentary registration of a patient when appearing in a medical institution.
- Signature of test tubes and other containers( eg with urine) in the presence of the patient. On them, the name of the medical worker is the name and type of analysis - he must say these data out loud to confirm their reliability by the patient.
- Subsequent processing of the biomaterial.
The analytical stage is a process of direct investigation of the biological material obtained in the laboratory.
The post-analysis phase includes:
- Documentation of results.
- Interpretation of results.
- Creation of a report containing: the patient's data, the person conducting the study, the medical facility, the laboratory, the date and time of sampling of the biomaterial, the normal clinical limits, the results with the corresponding conclusions and comments.
The main methods of laboratory diagnostics are physicochemical. Their essence consists in the study of the material taken for the interrelation of its various properties.
Physico-chemical methods are divided into:
The most commonly used in clinical practice is the optical method. It consists in fixing the changes in the light beam passing through the biomaterial prepared for the study.
The second place in terms of the number of tests performed is the chromatographic method.
Probability of errors
It is important to understand that clinical laboratory diagnostics is a kind of study in the course of which mistakes can be made.
Each laboratory should be equipped with high-quality tools, analyzes should be performed by highly qualified specialists.
According to statistics, the main share of errors falls on the pre-analytic stage - 50-75%, analytical - 13-23%, post-analysis - 9-30%.Regular measures should be taken to reduce the likelihood of errors at each stage of the laboratory test.
Clinical laboratory diagnostics is one of the most informative and reliable ways of obtaining information about the state of health of the body. With its help it is possible to identify any pathologies at an early stage and take timely measures to eliminate them.