Capillary angiodysplasia of the face: causes, treatment, photo
There are two main types of vascular formations on the skin: capillary angiodysplasia and hemangioma. Basically, you can find nevuses formed from capillaries.
The most common type of developmental defect acquired among newborns. As a rule, it does not cause any complications, in addition to cosmetic deficiency, but in some cases without appropriate treatment there is a possibility of bleeding, manifestation and development of infection.
Capillary angiodysplasia is a consequence of an abnormal formation of the circulatory system and is a spot of a wine, violet or bright red hue on the skin. The main difference from hemangiomas is the formation of large spots, which increase as a person grows.
With age, the surface of nevi can become knotty and acquire a darker shade. Capillary angiodysplasia, the photo of which is presented below, does not cause harm to the human body, but due to its location in the open areas of the body it brings moral discomfort and can contribute to the formation of complexes.
This pathology belongs to the category of congenital malformations, which appears due to the expansion of a large number of vessels. In contrast to capillary hemangiomas, such spots are already present on the skin of a newborn baby and are quite large.
As noted earlier, capillary angiodysplasia does not protrude above the skin, has an irregular shape and bright shades of purple and red. Most often it is formed on the face, it is also possible to localize to other parts of the body. The presence of extensive formations may indicate the existence of more dangerous vices.
Capillary angiodysplasia, the treatment of which is selected individually for each person, is detected not only through external examination. As a standard diagnostic method, Doppler scan of veins and arteries is used. In addition, an important role in the formulation of the disease is played by ultrasound examination of adjacent tissues. The physician should have sufficient experience in examining patients with this pathology, and special attention is paid to the quality of diagnostic equipment.
Once the capillary angiodysplasia has been determined, the type of formation and the depth of tissue lesions are established. In severe forms, computer angiography and magnetic resonance imaging are recommended. The main disadvantage of such diagnostics is high cost, but unlike usual ultrasound diagnostics, they allow to reveal with the greatest accuracy the type of disease and degree of injury.
Capillary angiodysplasia of the face: treatment of
Earlier, vascular formations were treated only in severe forms, this was due to the fact that burning and surgical removal contributed to the formation of deep scars. Today, medical lasers are used to solve this problem, which do not damage healthy tissues and are able to selectively coagulate blood vessels. This allows you to carry out treatment without consequences in the form of damage to the skin and scars. As a rule, lasers emitting rays of green and yellow spectrum are used. Their effect consists in free passage through the epidermis and accumulation in the capillary lumen, thereby forming the thermal energy that closes the vessel.
lasers Not only the lasers emitting green and yellow light, but also infra-red devices are quite common. The latter are somewhat inferior in efficiency due to less absorption of radiation by blood.
Medical lasers are classified according to the radiation spectrum and design features, the spot diameter is of particular importance. Devices emitting a small spot are suitable for the treatment of minor lesions. Their use for extensive nevi is inappropriate because of slow processing and low efficiency. Lasers with a larger spot( from 4 mm) can quickly stop even large angiodysplasia in a short time. Their advantage is also the low degree of dispersion of radiation, so that they penetrate into the deepest layers of the skin. Increasing the effectiveness of treatment is achieved through the cold protection of the epidermis and the minimum duration of impulses.
Features of treatment
Capillary angiodysplasia of the face and body is stopped with a laser using local anesthetics and does not require the use of general anesthesia in contrast to surgical excision. The procedure has no contraindications and does not contribute to the formation of crusts and flaking surfaces. During treatment, pain is absent, in some cases, slight burning is possible. To completely remove the birthmark, several procedures are necessary with an interval of 3-4 weeks, their number directly depends on the size of the formation. Capillary angiodysplasia takes on a lighter shade with each procedure, until it disappears completely.
Other methods of treatment
The specificity of treatment is determined depending on the patient's age, existing complications, spot size and form of education. The greatest effectiveness is observed in the treatment in childhood, it helps to prevent the development of complications and changes in the nutrition of adjacent tissues.
Sclerotherapy is the best option for arresting venous forms of angiodysplasia. It is made by filling the affected areas with a special sclerosing compound. Thus, complications arising from surgical treatment can be avoided.
Capillary angiodysplasia: causes of
The main factor in the appearance of wine spots is the adverse effect on the child during intrauterine development. They are affected by hormonal disorders, the use of drugs with a teratogenic effect, infectious diseases that the mother suffered during pregnancy. Also, the cause may be chromosomal abnormalities and other important factors. All this affects the formation of the circulatory system of the unborn child and the capillary bed. The result is arteriovenous formations, which make it difficult for the skin to feed and the blood circulation at the spot of the spot.
Clinical symptoms of the disease can occur at any age due to intoxication, trauma, pregnancy or hormonal changes. In the place of education, blood circulation is disrupted, venous insufficiency and frequent stagnation of blood occur. The negative influence is also on arterial beds. In particular, the elasticity of the walls of the arteries decreases, it is also possible for them to thin and atrophy. A frequent complication is insufficient blood supply in the affected area. There are certain symptoms that allow diagnosing the disease:
- a large number of vascular asterisks on the skin;
- varicose processes, extremely rare in children;
- increased sweating;
- hypertrophy of surrounding soft tissues;
- with lesions of the extremities, intolerance of increased loads is noted.