Glycolic sugar. The norm of glycated hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus
To restore the full picture during the course of diabetes mellitus, patients are given additional analysis for glycated hemoglobin. The study provides information on what the average blood glucose was over the past three months. If a patient has a suspected diabetes, he will give an analysis for glycated sugar. This indicator is more informative than the standard analysis of for sugar.
What is glycosylated hemoglobin
Glycated hemoglobin( otherwise glycated sugar) is an indicator that is determined biochemically, shows the sugar content in the past three months, so that the doctor can easily see the clinical picture of the disease in diabetes mellitus. If you compare the tests for tolerance or usual tests for blood glucose, then this analysis is more informative. The indicators allow to start timely and operative therapy. This, in turn, gives positive results and improves the quality of life of the patient. Presenting what is glycated sugar, it is necessary to find out its norms. You also need to understand what to do in cases where the indicators are too high or too low.
Analysis for glycated sugar
Diabetics should take such an analysis four times a year( or once in three months).In this period of time, the blood sugar level is assessed, as well as its dynamics. Analysis of glycated sugar as an ideal? Best in the morning, on an empty stomach. If a patient has a history of blood transfusion or there has been a significant loss of blood in the last period, the results may be unreliable. In such cases, the body needs time to recover - at least three months.
Each doctor advises their patients to take tests for glycated hemoglobin in the same laboratory. In each similar institution there is a breakdown in the indicators. In principle, it is insignificant, but in the formulation of the final diagnosis it can play a certain role.
Increased sugar does not always have a negative effect on your health, so you can not immediately establish a picture of diabetes. For this reason, the analysis for glycated sugar at least sometimes it is necessary to hand over to everyone who follows their own health.
Advantages of the
study In diabetes, this study has several advantages over conventional biochemical analysis:
- In principle, the analysis can be done at any time, even after eating. Although the hungry stomach indicators will be somewhat more accurate.
- It is this method that provides an opportunity to get a complete picture and to recognize the earliest stages of the diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, take the necessary measures.
- No special preparation is required for the analysis of glycated sugar, blood collection can occur at any time, in the shortest possible time.
- This method gives a 100% representation of whether a patient suffers from diabetes, even at the earliest stages.
- The physical or emotional state of the patient does not affect the accuracy of the result of the analysis in any way.
- Before conducting a blood sampling procedure, there is no need to refuse to take the necessary medications that are taken on an ongoing basis.
All of the above indicates that this analysis does not require special preparation, gives the most accurate picture of the disease. This excludes all factors that affect the readings.
If we talk about the shortcomings of the analysis for glycated sugar, then, unfortunately, they are also available. Here are the most basic:
- In comparison with the usual analysis for blood sugar, this study is at times more expensive.
- The results may give inaccurate indicators in patients suffering from hemoglobinopathy and anemia.
- Not all regions in the laboratories carry out this analysis, therefore not all residents of the country are available.
- The results of the study may be reduced after taking a high dose of vitamins E or C.
- If the patient has increased thyroid hormone levels, even if the blood glucose level is normal, the result on glycated hemoglobin can be overestimated.
Factors affecting the result of
It will take a long time to decode the analyzes. And yet, since the technologies for determining the level of sugar are different, it is better to carry out the analysis a couple of times.
If the norm of glycated sugar in diabetics is determined, it should be noted that in two different individuals with the same glucose value, glycated sugar values can differ by one percent.
In some situations, the analysis may produce false results( an error of up to 1%) if the fetal hemoglobin is lowered or elevated.
Numerous scientific studies have identified a number of reasons that can affect the results of the analysis of glycated sugar:
- The patient's body weight.
- Age group.
- Body Type.
There are other reasons that affect the reliability of the result. Although the analysis is possible in all situations, to obtain a more reliable picture it is better to conduct it on an empty stomach, excluding physical activity.
The norm of glycated sugar
The table of glycated sugar will help to evaluate the result of the analysis and draw certain conclusions.
Less than 5,8
Normal carbohydrate metabolism in the body. Zero opportunity to develop diabetes.
From 5.8 to 6.0
The figure is slightly overestimated. Healthy diet is recommended.
From 6.1 to 6.5
The possibility of developing diabetes is high. A strict diet and balanced exercise are recommended.
From 6,6 and more
The presence of the disease. To confirm the diagnosis, a number of additional studies are assigned.
Norm of glycated hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus
In 2011, the World Health Organization approved the threshold of glycated hemoglobin at 6.5% to establish the patient's diabetes. If the disease has already been established early, the rate of glycated hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus( 6.5%) allows you to monitor the effectiveness of treatment, the risk of various complications, as well as the correct determination of dosages of insulin and other medications
The overestimation of glycated sugar in diabetics indicates, that blood sugar figures often give high leaps. This shows that the patient does not always correctly take medication or treatment is prescribed incorrectly, the body has pathological processes that are closely related to carbohydrate metabolism. If the amount of glycated hemoglobin in a patient is constantly increased, it is necessary to take standard tests for blood glucose, to test the level before and after eating.
Overestimated glycated hemoglobin confirms the picture that the blood sugar figures often increased and kept at this level for a long time.
Need for analysis of
Diabetics should regularly take a glycated blood test for sugar. This must be done for constant monitoring of the body.
In case of type 1 diabetes, this analysis must be done at least four times, with diabetes of the second type - at least two times.
Some patients consciously skip this analysis, panic fearing to reveal in themselves the exceeded parameters. Someone just lazy to take the analysis and without due attention refers to their own health. This can not be done categorically. Timely detection of the reasons for the overestimated indicator makes it possible to adjust the treatment and provide the patient with a comfortable quality of life.
During pregnancy, women need to undergo this study. Underestimated indicators lead to a delay in the development of the fetus. There may even be an abortion. In this case, the situation requires strict control.
In children, inflated indices for a long time are also very dangerous. If the indicator is exceeded by 10 percent, in no case can sharply reduce the level. A sharp jump down can lead to impairment of visual functions, reduced vision and, subsequently, even complete loss. Reduce the indicator should be gradual, 1 percent per year.
To maintain normal glycated hemoglobin, you must constantly monitor the level of sugar, call the doctor on time, undergo examinations.
Consequences of an increased
The levels of glycated sugar should be at constant control. If over time the indicator is overestimated, it leads to the following complications:
- Vascular and cardiac pathologies.
- Hemoglobin does not cope with the transport function for the delivery of oxygen, as a consequence, hypoxia of organs and tissues occurs.
- Vision is deteriorating.
- Lack of iron.
- Renal failure.
- Pregnant women are at risk of having too large or dead fetuses.
- Children may develop non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Consequences of the reduced
If the glycated sugar in the blood is very low, then the risks of the following negative consequences are likely:
- Drinkage of drugs that lower the sugar level.
- Frequent bleeding.
- Adrenal insufficiency.
- Constant need for blood transfusion.
- The patient should observe a low carbohydrate diet for a long time.
- Hemolytic anemia.
- Perhaps the development of rare diseases, such as Hers disease, von Girke's disease, fructose intolerance.
- Pregnant women may have a dead child or premature birth.
If the results of tests for glycated sugar showed an overestimated or underreported indicator, you should first contact the doctor. Only a doctor can correctly establish the diagnosis and prescribe the required course of treatment. Usually the form of treatment includes the following items:
- Properly balanced nutrition.
- Developed the necessary physical activity.
- Suitable medications.
Regarding nutrition, there are especially important recommendations:
- The prevalence in the diet of fruits and vegetables. This will help keep the sugar level normal.
- For diabetics, fiber( bananas, legumes) is useful.
- Low-fat milk and yogurt, calcium and vitamin D will strengthen the bone system. This is especially true of type 2 diabetics. Nuts, fish meat. Omega-3 regulates glucose levels, reducing insulin resistance.
Strictly forbidden to eat:
- Fried food.
- Fast food.
- Carbonated drinks.
All this leads to sharp jumps in the level of glucose in the analyzes.
Aerobic physical activity quickly reduces the level of sugar, so they are recommended to all people, not only the sick. The emotional state is also very important and plays an important role in the normalization of the analysis indicators.
In any case, do not panic after getting the results for glycated sugar. The indicators are influenced by many factors. The reasons for raising or lowering the level can only be explained by the doctor.