Syndrome of the small intestine: symptoms, treatment
Doctors still can not say exactly why some people have problems with the digestive tract. Ulcers, gastritis, reflux and violation of defecation have densely entered the life of modern man. Therefore, many do not pay due attention to disorders. In most cases, the course of the disease can be stopped, reducing its manifestations. Sometimes adjustments in nutrition and medication are not enough. If the situation goes out of control, the patient is operated.
Resection of the small intestine is one of the types of surgical intervention. Today, doctors try to resort to it only in case of emergency. The probability of postoperative complications is extremely small, but it is not excluded. The length of the colon after resection is reduced several times. As a result, the body loses its ability to digest food. The patient develops anemia and dehydration. A similar clinical picture describes the syndrome of the small intestine. Photos of pathology, as well as symptoms and treatment methods are presented in this article.
What is this ailment?
Under the syndrome of the small intestine is understood the whole symptom complex that occurs after resection of the organ. This operation is relatively safe. The likelihood of complications or death is negligible. However, minor physiological disturbances can lead to digestive disorders. Therefore, the rehabilitation period after resection is sometimes delayed by several months.
Syndrome of the small intestine is most often detected in adults, although this pathology sometimes occurs in children. If in the first case there is already a proven treatment strategy, then with small patients the situation is somewhat more complicated. The mechanism of regeneration in children is highly active, so they recover faster and return to the usual rhythm of life. However, many medications for small patients are categorically contraindicated. Syndrome of the small intestine in newborns is diagnosed very rarely, but it is also no exception. In this case, the main cause of pathology is not in surgical intervention, but in genetic predisposition. What other factors contribute to the development of the syndrome?
Causes of pathology
Doctors distinguish two main factors contributing to the development of the syndrome. This is an operation to excise part of the small intestine and a hereditary predisposition. Genetic mutations are a complex issue that requires highly specialized knowledge. Therefore, we will dwell in more detail on the second reason. What diseases and disorders require resection?
- Neoplasms of different etiology.
- Crohn's disease. Nonspecific granulomatous lesion of the digestive tract, in which all its departments are affected.
- Strangulation obstruction of the intestine. A dangerous disorder, characterized by a narrowing of the lumen of the organ and compression of the nerve endings.
- Necrotizing enterocolitis. Acute inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which can provoke an infarction of the intestinal wall. This disorder occurs mainly in premature infants. Among its main reasons, doctors call intrauterine infection.
- Gastroschism. One of the variants of a hernia, when the part of the intestine "leaves" outward and begins to develop outside the abdominal wall.
- Various pathologies leading to organ damage and slow blood flow.
Mechanism of development of
The syndrome of the small intestine, the treatment of which is discussed below, is a complex pathological process. In its current, it is customary to distinguish three stages. After surgical intervention, an acute postoperative period begins. Its duration is several weeks or months. For this stage, the appearance of loose stools, dehydration, neurological disorders. Patients report permanent weakness and drowsiness.
The work of the digestive system is gradually restored, the period of subcompensation is coming. The stool is normalized, the metabolism comes into balance, but the dryness of the skin is preserved. The body lacks vitamins and minerals, anemia develops. The duration of this period is about a year.
The last stage is adaptation. Its duration depends on the volume of surgical interventions and individual characteristics of the patient's body.
Symptoms and Symptoms ofSyndrome
Clinical signs of pathology depend on the severity of the syndrome. The course of the disease in mild form is usually accompanied by abdominal pain, diarrhea and flatulence. The average degree is characterized by a more pronounced clinical picture. Patients complain of frequent loose stools( up to 7 times a day), weight loss, poor skin and hair. The severity of the syndrome is considered to be the most unfavorable. It is manifested by debilitating diarrhea( up to 15 times a day), anemia and rapid weight loss.
Medical examination of patients
Diagnosis of pathology begins with the study of anamnesis and questioning the patient. When physical examination reveals the pallor of the skin, puffiness. Palpation of the abdominal wall may be accompanied by soreness. If the syndrome of the small intestine is suspected, the symptoms of the disease are not grounds for confirming the diagnosis. Therefore, the patient is assigned a series of tests. Biochemistry of blood can detect kidney failure, as well as determine the content of sodium and potassium. A general analysis is necessary to assess the level of hemoglobin. It also helps to identify increases in ESR.If suspected of septic damage, bacteriological culture of the blood is additionally prescribed.
Instrumental examination methods make it possible to detect complications that have developed against the backdrop of a pathological process. Among them, the most informative are ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs, the roentgenogram of the intestine and the PHEGS.The results of the medical examination help to assess the overall clinical picture of the disease, to appoint competent therapy.
How to treat the syndrome of the small intestine in children and adults?
Intensity of clinical manifestations of pathology and well-being of a patient determine therapeutic tactics. Doctors prefer to follow the general methods of treatment, which include the correction of the diet and the intake of medications. In particularly serious cases, surgical intervention may be required.
Patients with a diagnosis of "short bowel syndrome" are shown a strict diet. It implies the exclusion from the diet of fatty and fried foods, alcoholic beverages. Doctors recommend giving preference to lean dishes( lean meat, fish, vegetables and fruits, porridges on the water).To fill the deficiency of calcium, you need to increase the amount of fermented milk products. Whole milk in many patients provokes an increase in diarrhea, so use it with caution. Food is recommended to cook steamed, but without adding spices and other flavor enhancers.
Syndrome of the small intestine can not be cured without the use of medications. Their use is necessary for the relief of clinical manifestations. Patients are prescribed antidiarrhoeic drugs( "Loperamide"), vitamin complexes and medicines to relieve symptoms of dehydration( "Regidron").Antacids are used to normalize the acidity of gastric juice. To help surgical intervention resorted only to the complicated course of the disease, when conservative therapy is ineffective. It can be a transplantation of the part of the intestine or the creation of an artificial valve in the organ. Such operations are quite effective, but sometimes unpredictable.
Unfortunately, not always listed treatment options bring the desired results. Especially often, an unfavorable prognosis is observed in toddlers. In this case, patients are transferred to intravenous nutrition. After adaptation of the organism, its concentration is gradually increased. This is a very long process, which requires several hospitalizations and patience on the part of the parents.
Possible complications of
. The syndrome of the small intestine is often accompanied by complications. Even with careful compliance with the recommendations of the doctor can not exclude the likelihood of an unfavorable prognosis. What complications do patients have?
- Hypovitaminosis. Stones in the kidney and gallbladder.
- Dysbacteriosis of the intestine.
- Disturbance of bile synthesis.
Similar disorders worsen the general condition of the patient. However, competent treatment and constant supervision by a gastroenterologist help to achieve positive dynamics, accelerate the recovery of the body.