Estradiol and progesterone: norms and deviations of analyzes
Hormones are unusual biologically active substances that affect not only the state of health, but also the secret world of man. Nature did it so that in the body of a woman, immediately after conception, special hormones of pregnancy-estradiol and progesterone-are stimulated, which not only help the fetus to fully form, but also awaken a maternal feeling in a woman.
Why you need to monitor the level of hormones
At the stage of expectation of the baby, cardinal changes occur throughout the female body( in particular, this refers to the hormonal background).Changes occur throughout the endocrine system. The organism of the future mother, wholly rebuilding, creates an environment for gestation, as well as the natural development of the child, from the initial stage of pregnancy begins to be prepared for childbirth.
Absolutely all the hormonal parameters of the organism of the future parturient child play an important role - they are the main factors of the correct formation of the fetus. And in this regard, progesterone and estradiol are necessarily monitored by a gynecologist with additional tests that the woman needs to take at least twice during pregnancy: the first trimester( 10-12 weeks) and the 2nd trimester( 16-18 weeks).
Hormones of pregnancy
Hormonal tests necessarily contain tests for the level of estradiol and progesterone. Such studies should be conducted as often as possible and do not delay the visit to your doctor who will send for the delivery of these analyzes. They are the most important in the development of the baby, promoting the normal course of pregnancy. And that's why they are called the main hormones of gestation.
It is a hormone of the reproductive system, which has a direct relevance in the formation of secondary sexual characteristics of a woman. Estradiol and progesterone "follow" the work of the entire reproductive system. With disorders in the production of estradiol in the female body, full-fledged fetation is almost impossible. In addition, this hormone performs the main function in the natural formation of the reproductive organs of the child at the puberty stage.
Estradiol is produced, as a rule, by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by a layer of adrenal glands. During pregnancy, the saturation of this hormone increases significantly within the physiological norm. Admissible concentrations of estradiol in the follicular phase vary from 97.5 to 592 mol / l, in luteal - from 120 to 738 mol / l, during the climax decrease to 14.9 mol / l. In humans, estradiol and progesterone are also contained, but in small quantities.
The increased content of estradiol is found in such painful conditions as:
- follicular ovarian cysts;
- estrogen secretion and granulocyte neoplasm;
- tumors that secrete a pregnancy hormone( chorionic gonadotropin);
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- gynecomastia( in men).
Reduces the saturation of estradiol in hypogonadism( in males) of any genesis. As well as with progesterone, an analysis for the detection of this hormone in the blood should be performed at a doctor's appointed day.
It is considered a steroid hormone produced by the female ovaries, to a much lesser extent by the layer of the adrenal glands and at the stage of pregnancy - by the placenta. Of course, without progesterone, the natural change and activity of the female organism is excluded. The main purpose of the hormone is to regulate the menstrual cycle and to ensure the successful carrying of the fetus. To give blood to progesterone and estradiol is necessary clearly on the day, which will appoint a gynecologist.
Depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle, the concentrations of progesterone in the female body can be as follows:
- in the follicular - from 0.4 to 5.4 nmol / l;
- in luteal - from 3,3 to 71,3 nmol / l;
- before ovulation - from 1.23 to 18.7 nmol / l;
- at the first stage of pregnancy( 4-12 weeks) - from 35.6 to 136 nmol / l.
In addition to finding a woman in an "interesting" position, the saturation of progesterone can increase in diseases such as:
- adrenal tumors;
- bladder skidding;
- chorionepithelioma of the uterus;
- congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
A decrease in the level of progesterone is detected if a woman has a miscarriage. Even with endocrinopathy( with a lack of luteal phase) and the syndrome of galactorrhea-amenorrhea. In the first and second cases, progesterone, estradiol, is significantly reduced.
This is primarily a male hormone( androgen), responsible for the formation of secondary sexual characteristics in the masculine gender and promoting childbearing activity. Testosterone preserves spermatogenesis, affects the development of muscle mass and bone growth, activates erythropoiesis. The natural concentration of this hormone in the body of a man is in the range from 11 to 33.5 nmol / l. In the female body, testosterone is present in a much smaller volume - from 0.2 to 2.7 nmol / l.
The increased content of such a hormone in the body can depend on the following pathologies:
- testosterone-producing testicle neoplasms;
- of endogenous corticism;
- secondary adrenal gland dysplasia.
The increased saturation of testosterone( if you do not take into account the hormone progesterone and estradiol) in the female body is often observed with virilizing tumors of the ovaries and their polycystosis.
Decreased concentration of this hormone is capable of:
- of hepatic insufficiency;
- Down syndrome;
- initial and repeated hypogonadism;
It is important to know that unnatural introduction of testosterone into the body can adversely affect the working condition of the male reproductive system.
Consequences of hormonal background disruptions
Reduction of the number of reproductive hormones in the female and male body affects not only the childbearing function, but also the appearance. Excessive development of testosterone in the body of a woman leads to unnecessary growth of hair in areas of scarcity for it and the formation of acne.
An increase in the concentration of a female hormone in the body of a man leads to the formation of secondary sexual characteristics in a female form, for example swelling of the mammary gland( gynecomastia).In addition, the hormonal cause of the doctors see more as the main factor of the disorder of sexual orientation.
What are the norms for hormones
For a normal female body, it is natural to produce prolactin, progesterone, estradiol in sufficient measure. And when they speak of a hormone like estradiol, the woman's norm should be as follows:
- in the follicular phase - from 57 to 227 pg / ml;
- in luteinizing - from 77 to 226 pg / ml;
- in the pre-viable - from 127 to 475 pg / ml.
The older the woman, the less estradiol the test results produce. When menopause comes, the hormone rate in the female is approximately 19.6-83 pg / ml.
In women and men, decreased estradiol can be detected if there are such phenomena:
- Inflammations of the genitals.
- Endocrine disorders.
- Pituitary dysfunction.
- Increased prolactin level.
- Active physical activity.
- Taking medications( also various contraceptives) without prescribing a doctor.
In women, the following are common causes:
- alopecia( hair loss);
- excess weight;
- lowered limb temperature;
- is too fast fatigue;
- disorders in the digestive tract;
- non-permanent monthly;
- pain in the mammary glands.
Elevated progesterone and estradiol on examination in a woman may indicate an increased production of thyroid hormones, malignant tumors and the initial stage of endometriosis formation in the ovaries.
Diagnosed in the female if bloody discharge does not appear for 6 months, the mammary glands and uterus decrease, and the skin becomes dry. Conception in this situation can not occur. Estradiol and progesterone can also be lowered at the beginning of pregnancy.
Norms of progesterone
This hormone, responsible for the favorable course of pregnancy, should normally be in the follicular phase 0.2-3.07 ng / ml, in luteal - 0.32-20.6 ng / ml. During an "interesting" position, the level of progesterone in a woman is determined by the trimester. Usually in the first trimester the hormone fluctuates within 19-53 ng / ml, in the second - 24-81.2 ng / ml, and in the third - 62-3135 ng / ml. Probable factors for increasing progesterone may be neoplasms of the ovary, diabetes mellitus and the cyst of the yellow body. And the drop itself can give information about infertility.
Low progesterone( and estradiol, too) is called luteal insufficiency and does not allow you to become pregnant, let alone bear fruit. Another indicator of luteal inferiority is a short menstrual cycle. With reduced saturation of progesterone in the blood there are unpleasant sensations in the mammary glands and a surplus of male sex hormones. The second reason can provoke the appearance of acne, fluctuations in blood pressure, and the appearance of pigmentation of the skin.
All the actions taking place in the human body are closely related, and therefore the rebalancing of the level of one or two hormones affects the other indicators too. And so that the gynecologist can assess the overall hormonal background of a woman, she needs to do tests for all kinds of hormones. And it will be better if such trips to a specialist are systematic to control the general and hormonal state of the patient's health.
After all, an important factor for any representative of the fair sex is their norm. Estradiol, progesterone are the most important hormones responsible for the correct functioning of the entire reproductive system.