Blockade of the heart - a violation in its rhythm, associated with the cessation or slowing of the passage of the conductive system of electrical impulse.
Classify several species of this state.
Atrial heart block occurs when the impulse is slowed in the region of the atrial muscle;atrial-ventricular - indicates a violation in the corresponding node;intraventricular abnormalities correspond to the level of the bundle and its legs.
In the first case, on the background of the usual normal rhythm, myocardium falls out, and a pause is formed, approximately equal to two contractions. Such a permanent blockade of the heart is difficult to distinguish from bradycardia. This condition is typical for healthy people and for patients with ischemic heart disease. In addition, this kind of blockade occurs in the presence of inflammatory pathologies in the heart muscle, poisoning, as well as an overdose of certain medications( "Quinidine," cardiac glycosides, "Verapamil").Has a marked blockade of the heart symptoms in the form of fainting, possible loss of consciousness, seizures. In some cases, such a disorder becomes a flutter or a flicker of the atria.
With good patient condition, heart block does not require treatment. Rarely prescribed drugs "Belloid", "Bellataminal", "Ephedrine".At occurrence of attacks of loss of consciousness or at frequency of reductions less than 40 impacts for a minute implantation of the artificial driver of a rhythm is appointed.
Atrioventricular blockade of the heart develops at the site corresponding to the atrioventricular node. Conductivity disorder in this case may be a consequence of many organ pathologies. Especially often this condition is observed in IHD, rheumatic lesions, cardiosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, congenital malformations. In rare cases, such a violation is noted in healthy people( astronauts, pilots).
There are three degrees of atrioventricular blockade.
At the first degree from the atria all impulses reach the ventricles. However, their implementation has been slowed down.
The second degree is characterized by incomplete conductivity. In this case, there is a loss of individual ventricular contractions.
The third degree is the complete blockade of the node. The condition is characterized by a lack of conductivity, contraction of the ventricles and atria in a correct rhythm that is independent of each other. With such violations, attacks of consciousness, seizures, soreness in the heart, and cyanosis of the face may occur. At the same time there are no pulse and contractions of the heart. Seizures are a consequence of a short-term cessation of blood supply. As a rule, with such violations, patients become disabled, they develop heart failure. This condition is considered an absolute indication for the pacemaker installation.
Disturbances in the conductivity of the ventricles develop, as a rule, in the fascicle bundle or branches of its legs. Usually blockades of an innate character do not provoke any heart disease, without affecting, therefore, the quality of life. As a rule, ventricular conduction disorders are diagnosed easily by an electrocardiogram. They are characterized by complexes that look typical.
As a rule, such blockades do not threaten health. Their significance from the clinical point of view is determined by the probability of progression and the transition to atrioventricular disorder in full. In addition, they may indicate the presence of any pathological lesion in the heart.
It is extremely rare cases of development of a triphasicular blockade. It is noted that there is no conductivity of the electric pulse during all branches. In such cases, there is a need for the presence of a pacemaker permanently.