Laryngoscopy - what is it? Types of laryngoscopy, procedure description
If a person is prone to frequent diseases of the throat and larynx, the doctor may recommend going through a procedure such as laryngoscopy. What it is? This is the most effective way to study the condition of the larynx. Earlier in this case, doctors used a special mirror. He was injected into the larynx, illuminated the throat and examined its walls. Today, this procedure has undergone significant changes, and modern laryngoscopy is very different, and doctors receive comprehensive information.
Why is laryngoscopy performed?
What is this and in what cases is this procedure carried out? Laryngoscopy is necessary in order to examine the throat and diagnose the problems that arise in it. Usually it is prescribed in the following cases:
- to understand the cause of the cough, often with blood, hoarseness, voice, bad breath, sore throat;
- for finding out the reasons for difficulty with swallowing;
- to assess the possible cause of persistent pain in the ear;
- for removal of a foreign body;
- to detect swelling of the throat.
Types of laryngoscopy
There are following types of procedure such as laryngoscopy:
- indirect - in this case a guttural mirror is used, which the doctor enters into the mouth of the pharynx;
- straight - is carried out with the help of the device, thanks to which you can see the larynx itself, and not its mirror image;
- retrograde - performed to study the lower larynx with a nasopharyngeal mirror inserted into the trachea through a tracheostomy;
- microlaringoscopy - a special operating microscope with a focal length of 350-400 mm is used for this.
Possible complications of
If a procedure such as laryngoscopy of the larynx is to be performed, it is necessary to know about such possible complications as:
- severe swelling or bleeding in the throat;
- allergic reaction to anesthesia;
- bleeding from the nose in the case of the introduction of a laryngoscope through the nose;
- nausea and vomiting;
- wounds from the teeth at the bottom of the tongue.
Laryngoscopy is usually performed by an otorhinolaryngologist.
Otorhinolaryngologist - who is this?
Many people with various diseases of the ear, throat and nose do not rush to the doctor, and are engaged in self-medication. Gradually, this leads to the fact that the disease takes on a chronic form, which complicates the heart, joints, and kidneys. Only in this case a person turns to such a specialist as an otorhinolaryngologist. Who is it?
The otorhinolaryngologist conducts inspection and diagnostics: pharynx, ears, larynx, nose and trachea. Such an expert conducts not only conservative treatment, but also operations on the ears, nose, pharyngeal cavity, larynx.
procedure Before laryngoscopy is performed, it is necessary to prepare for it. To do this, the patient is examined, a chest X-ray is made, a barium radiopaque study is performed, which is an x-ray of the esophagus and larynx, and is performed after receiving a liquid containing a barium solution. Also, the preparation may include computed tomography - an X-ray view using a computer, through which images of structures within the body are performed.
If general anesthesia is used, it is forbidden to drink and eat 8 hours before the procedure. Local anesthesia does not make such demands. The doctor should know about all the medications taken. A week before the laryngoscopy it is necessary to stop taking anti-inflammatory medications, as well as drugs that dilute the blood.
Conduction of an indirect laryngoscopy
For a patient, a doctor may prescribe a procedure such as an indirect laryngoscopy. What it is? This is a procedure performed by adults and older children using a special guttural mirror. As a lighting use a frontal reflector, which reflects the light of the lamp.
Indirect laryngoscopy is usually performed in a darkened room. An anesthetic is used in the form of a spray that is sprayed into the throat. If a frontal reflector is used, then this light source is located on the right ear of the patient, and the thumb and middle fingers of the left hand fix the patient's tongue out. The index finger is often used to lift the upper lip. The doctor brings the light of the frontal reflector to the area of the soft palate and with his right hand inserts a guttural mirror into the oral cavity, which before that must be heated to the temperature of the body so that it does not fog.
The mirror should be installed in such a way that the light rays reflected from it fall on the larynx, and the rod is located on the left side of the patient's mouth. This will not close the field of view. The patient must pronounce the sounds "E" and "I", in this case the larynx slightly lifts and facilitates the examination. If there is a foreign object in the larynx, the doctor removes it.
To avoid vomiting, the oral cavity and throat part of the pharynx, as well as the upper larynx, are irrigated or smeared with 1-2% lidocaine solution or 2% solution of pyromecaine. If there are shortcomings such as a thick short tongue, rigid, folded, overturned epiglottis, then with the help of the holder pull the epiglottis to the root of the tongue. This procedure is performed under surface anesthesia.
When performing such a procedure, as an indirect laryngoscopy, a reversible image of the larynx is obtained.
In addition to indirect laryngoscopy, direct laryngoscopy can also be performed. What it is? This is a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the throat more closely. In this case, laryngoscopes are used, which are used for other manipulations, for example, removal of foreign bodies. To perform a procedure such as direct laryngoscopy, it was more convenient to consider the larynx, use laryngoscopic kits that have fiber-optic fibers, replaceable blades. Such sets are usually designed for the procedure in children and adults and allow to examine the larynx in all details.
Conducting retrograde laryngoscopy
The procedure is prescribed for persons who have suffered tracheostomy. A small nasopharyngeal mirror is preheated to body temperature and injected through a tracheostomy. The tool should in this case be turned upside-down in the direction of the larynx. As a lighting, a frontal reflector or illuminator is used. This procedure allows you to see the upper part of the trachea, the lower surface of the vocal folds and the podogolovoy cavity.
Carrying out of microlaryngoscopy
Inspection of the larynx is carried out using a special operating microscope with a focal length of 350-400 mm. Such a procedure can be combined with direct or indirect laryngoscopy and allows diagnosing tumor lesions of the larynx.
Laryngoscopy procedure: where can it be done?
Many people are worried about the question of where to make laryngoscopy. Usually it is conducted in modern medical centers, which are located in many cities. This procedure can be paid and free of charge.
Laryngoscopy is a procedure that allows to assess the condition of the larynx and to establish the cause of chronic diseases. Often, the diseases of the throat pass into a chronic form because of their neglect. In order not to bring your larynx to such a state, you need to contact the doctor in a timely manner.