Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases
A person is at risk of developing a disease. It can affect any body. In our body, all organs are integrated into systems according to their functions. The most vulnerable is cardiovascular. Although it consists of only two elements - the heart and blood vessels, but its work depends on the quality of health and human life. We have just mentioned the quality of life, which is associated with the state of the heart and blood vessels. After all, any complications or pathological processes in them can permanently deprive a person of work capacity and functionality. Therefore, the prevention of cardiac and vascular diseases occupies an important place in everyone's life.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system
What should I protect myself from, and what diseases of the heart and vessels are there?
- Congenital and acquired heart defects. Sometimes already from birth the valves do not work, there is not enough of any element in the structure of the heart, etc.
- Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels - these bloody hollow tubes overgrow with cholesterol plaques, preventing the full supply of the brain with oxygen.
- IHD - ischemic heart disease - lack of oxygen for the work of the heart.
- Pathological processes in peripheral arteries.
- Varicose disease is a violation of blood circulation in blood vessels due to increased blood clot formation.
- Myocarditis for various reasons.
- Deep vein thrombosis.
Anamnesis in people at risk of
Prevention of cardiovascular risk begins with an anamnesis. It is important for a specialist to know what a person was sick in order to develop measures to prevent the development of heart disease and blood vessels. In addition, the doctor asks questions to find out what diseases this system has in the immediate family.
Then there is a survey about the existence of bad habits - smoking, drinking alcohol. Substances contained in cigarettes and alcoholic beverages affect the condition of the vessels, dilating or narrowing them, as well as penetrating into the blood, which affects the work of the heart.
It is also important for a specialist to learn about the patient's mobility and diet. If he leads an immobile lifestyle, eats harmful products or without restrictions in quantity, this behavior necessarily leads to damage to blood vessels and the heart. Preventing the development of cardiovascular diseases helps a person understand what exactly needs to be changed in his life in order to stay healthy.
Examination of patients with cardiovascular diseases
Any diagnosis is made after any examination. These can be some special manipulations or tests. Even after the appearance of pathological processes, the prevention of diseases of the cardiovascular system remains relevant. After all, there are different levels of disease development, for example, hypertension has 3 degrees. The first, accordingly, is easier to control than the third. And this applies to other diseases. Even if they are already developing, then it is necessary to continue preventive measures to prevent complications.
With the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system, the following examination is prescribed:
- constant measurement of blood pressure - it is necessary to do 3-4 times a day to control your condition and the performance of the heart muscle;
- heart rate control - to prevent heart attacks;
- auscultation of the lungs - is performed to study the characteristics of respiratory noises;
- pulse on the feet - control of the patency of the vessels of the limbs;
- measurement of body weight - extra pounds give a load on the heart and blood vessels;
- waist circumference.
In addition, doctors prescribe laboratory tests that show the condition of internal organs, their performance and the quality of the performed functions:
- urine test for the presence of glucose and protein;
- blood test for the presence of cholesterol and other lipids, glucose and serum creatinine.
Also carrying out an ECG, echocardiogram is also informative in the study of the work of cardiovascular diseases. Most often, cardiograms are prescribed for suspected angina.
What is the prevention of diseases of this system?
Many cares and difficulties bring cardiovascular diseases. Treatment and prevention of these pathologies at the state level is one of the priority areas. After all, in recent years, the death rate among people suffering from them has increased.
Prevention of cardiac and vascular diseases involves activities that are necessary to improve the quality and longevity of people by preventing the occurrence and development of such pathologies. The emergence of them is not only a medical, but also a social problem, therefore, attention is paid to prevention.
The development of measures not only concerns the prevention of vascular and cardiac disease, but also minimizes the risk of complications. The most common of these are: myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, stroke.
State program to prevent complications of cardiovascular diseases
The state program includes three main ones:
- primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases;
- reduced risk of complications in patients with CVD( secondary).
The first is the most important, as when it is implemented at the level of the whole population, the quality of life improves. This involves reducing the risk factors for heart and vascular disease. For this, measures are being taken to change the way of life. This does not even always require a medical examination.
A high-risk strategy, or primary prevention, aims to prevent the occurrence of such diseases in people who, by their habits or lifestyle, are already at risk.
The third strategy is aimed at monitoring the condition of already patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is carried out to support health and prevent complications of CVD.
What does prevent heart disease, vascular disease?
Such events are not held "from the ceiling."There are special points allocated by the Ministry of Health, which must be planned. Prevention of risk factors for cardiovascular disease is carried out in several ways, which will be discussed below. The primary task of specialists is to identify and assess the risk of developing such diseases. Evaluation is carried out using special tables, because even at first glance, healthy people risk ending their lives because of the hidden course of diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Control of food
Prevention of diseases of the cardiovascular system begins with the mandatory condition of human existence - nutrition. It is on him that the quality of human life and its duration depends. If you do not exercise control over food, make gross mistakes in the development of the diet, then you may experience chronic diseases of various organs, including the heart and blood vessels.
Food is more than saturation. For a general dinner, people can communicate, have fun with food and so on. But all food should not only bring moral satisfaction, but also benefit the body. Healthy nutrition is one of the main aspects of not only receiving energy, but also preventing various diseases.
To prevent the development of chronic diseases it is important to eat properly, this condition necessarily includes the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Memo for people at risk includes the following recommendations:
- Eat more fish. It helps the heart to work better.
- To reduce the consumption of meat, from fatty varieties in general should be abandoned.
- Use legumes, greens, vegetables, dried fruits and oatmeal to help reduce cholesterol in the blood.
- All dairy products can be used only with low fat content. Dairy products are especially useful.
- Reduce salt intake, in large quantities it adversely affects the vessels.
- Restrict the consumption of sweets and flour in food.
- Do not strain your heart with toning beverages.
- It is necessary to practically stop eating cheese, yolks, butter, sour cream, kidneys, liver, caviar, brains. These foods are rich in fat and cholesterol.
- As much as possible eat fruits and vegetables. With the help of fiber decreases appetite.
- It is better to use olive oil from vegetable oils.
Such recommendations on nutrition implies the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. A reminder with advice that can be obtained from a specialist, always reminds you of the importance of daily eating a variety of foods.
At this point, you need to consider the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Passive smokers also run the risk of getting a chronic CCC disease. Cessation of smoking significantly reduces the risk of heart and vascular disease.
Regular sports activities are a strong factor in preventing pathological conditions associated with heart disease and blood vessels. Small cardio-operations should also be present in people suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Physical training strengthens the walls of the vessels, renews the healthy work of the heart and helps the entire body to be toned. By training blood vessels, a person provides protection against diseases such as stroke, coronary artery disease, heart attack and some others.
Body Weight Control
Statistically, more than 300 million people in the world are obese. This problem occupies a leading place among the causes of the development of cardiovascular diseases on a global scale. With an increase in body weight, the production of free fatty acids increases, the increase in blood pressure and the amount of cholesterol. This leads to a deterioration in the work of the heart and blood vessels. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in women and men includes weight control, because obesity can lead to diseases such as IHD, stroke, osteoporosis, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism. In addition to this system, others suffer as well - the load on the legs, back, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system and so on increases. Also appear cosmetic defects: an increase in the circumference of the waist, the second chin and others.
Measurement of blood pressure
A sharp pressure drop can lead to a violation of the integrity of the vessels. Therefore, before using drugs, it is necessary to check the pressure indicators. Prevention of cardiac and vascular diseases should begin with a control measurement of blood pressure. This is necessary to determine the extent of the disease or prevent it.
Prevention of cardiovascular disease in children
It is especially unfortunate to observe when children suffer such serious diseases. But you can prevent their occurrence! A person's life begins long before his birth. The heart of the fetus begins to beat to the 6-7th week of intrauterine development. Prevention of cardiac and vascular diseases can begin as early as this time. A pregnant woman should give up bad habits, malnutrition, excessive fluid intake.
Cardiovascular diseases, the treatment and prevention of which in children is slightly different than that of adults, can accompany a small resident all his life, bringing difficulties to him and his environment. Therefore, parents should monitor the nutrition of children, moderate physical activity, body weight, rest regime.