The tonsils are aching. Cancer of the tonsils: prognosis and treatment

Cancer of the tonsils is a malignant disease. It is characterized by the formation of a tumor. This ailment is considered to be a rare type of oncology. In this case, most often, men suffer from tonsils. Cancer is diagnosed, according to statistics, in men of advanced age( from 60 years), and this type of oncology is found in this group almost 10 times more often than in women.

tonsils of cancer

Brief description of the pathology

Cancer of the tonsils develops in the oropharynx. Education increases in size and over time grows into a malignant tumor without borders. Tonsils in their biology are considered lymphoid tissues. In humans, six types of tonsils are distinguished:

  • two palatines( located above the sky in the oral cavity);
  • two pipe;
  • pharyngeal;
  • is a language.

Of course, oncology can affect any of these species. However, most often the cancer of the tonsil is diagnosed.

Initially, the disease manifests itself by enlarging the lymph nodes, compaction, swelling, ulcer. Then metastases begin to develop. This pathology is a rapidly progressive disease. Doctors diagnose the disease by examining the oral cavity and lymph nodes.

Causes of

As medicine says, one of the main and most common causes for cancer of the tonsils is the abuse of smoking and alcohol.

No less important factor in the appearance of the disease can be the human papillomavirus. Today it is very common. As a result of unprotected oral sex, the virus can easily enter the oropharynx.

cancer of the tonsils

It should also be noted that the causes of the disease can be:

  • contact with harmful substances in the production;
  • Epstein-Barr virus;
  • chemotherapy in the past;
  • abuse of immunosuppressants.

Classification of pathology

Physicians identify 3 forms of a disease such as tonsillar cancer:

  • ulcerative - the tissues of the tonsils themselves are destroyed;
  • infiltrative - a significant increase in the size of the tonsils, edema;
  • papillomatous - growths on the amygdala( papilloma, polyps).

Symptoms of the disease

The appearance of the disease in the body almost always proceeds asymptomatically. Therefore it is very difficult to determine the cancer of the amygdala( the photo allows you to visually inspect the disease) in the initial stages.

During the time when the tumor grows and grows in size, the patient begins to show some signs characterizing the disease.

These symptoms can be:

  • chronic sore throat;
  • discomfort in the ears;
  • lymph nodes increase in size;
  • is rapidly decreasing weight, for no reason;
  • can change the voice;
  • there are discharge from the nose( they can even be purulent);
  • is becoming difficult to breathe;
  • may cause otitis in the future, hearing is often impaired.

If you do not consult a doctor in the early stages, then there can be serious violations such as:

  • Jaco's syndrome - vision impairment, eye muscle paralysis, blindness;
  • Berne syndrome - paresis, paralysis of nerves upon swallowing;
  • Kolle-Sikar syndrome - numbness in the throat, root of the tongue.

cancer of the amygdala photo

That's why it's very important, even with the slightest changes in your body, not to hesitate, but to immediately apply to competent specialists for help. This will protect you from the development of a variety of pathologies, including from such a serious illness as cancer of the amygdala.

Symptoms typical for oncology, which must be paid attention:

  • In the region of the vocal cords, tumors are formed. This leads to a breakdown in the voice function, hoarseness. Over time, the voice may completely disappear.
  • Sensation of foreign body in throat. The upper larynx is affected. There are pain when swallowing saliva or food.
  • If the cancer is concentrated in the lower region of the larynx, then the uniformity of breathing is disturbed. The patient has shortness of breath.

The presence of such symptoms is an alarming sign, so contacting a doctor is unavoidable.

Stages of the disease

As it is known, oncology is characterized by 4 stages of development. The cancer of the tonsils is not an exception.

Stages of the disease:

  1. Nodules of small size. They reach a value of up to 2 centimeters. There are no special symptoms. Metastases are completely absent: they are not present either in lymphonoduses, or in the human body.
  2. There is a significant increase in lymph nodes in the cervical region. For this degree, the presence of metastases is already characteristic. The tumor is more than 2 cm - it goes beyond the mucous membrane. But education does not extend beyond the tonsils. Metastases go to the lymph nodes. The first symptoms appear: pain in the throat when swallowing.
  3. Tumor reaches a large size. It looks like a capsule. Education goes beyond the region of the tonsils, passes into the pharyngeal wall. Symptoms such as chronic sore throat, swelling of the neck, constant bad breath, saliva with blood, lymphatic metastases appear.
  4. Tumor grows into the organs and tissues of a person. The larynx and nasopharynx are damaged. Metastases spread throughout the body: the brain, spine, lymph nodes. Visible symptoms in the patient - this is a swelling of the neck and face, persistent headaches, cramps, anemia.

cancer tonsil symptoms

Diagnostic methods

How is cancer of the tonsils defined? Endoscopic examination is used to diagnose the disease. This is a medical examination, which is a pharyngoscopy. With the help of special technology this diagnostic method allows to increase the image of a malignant tumor. During such a study, a biopsy is done.

With the help of topographic methods it is possible to determine the prevalence of cancer in the body:

  • ultrasound;
  • MRI;
  • CTG;
  • scanning of the lymphatic system;
  • laboratory study;
  • oncomarkers.

Also carry out a laboratory blood test. After all, it is the main informative signal in the human body.

The blood will show the following parameters in the oncology of the tonsils:

  • low hemoglobin;
  • the number of red blood cells is much lower than normal;
  • the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation is over scale.

If the tests indicate the development of oncology, then it is necessary to immediately take a course of treatment under the supervision of an oncologist.

cancer of the tonsils of stage

Methods of fighting the disease

The necessary method of treatment is prescribed by the doctor after it is fully determined at what stage the disease is. As a rule, surgical intervention is carried out in any case, if diagnosed with throat cancer. Then, if necessary, the doctor prescribes chemotherapy, radiotherapy or radiotherapy.

If the patient is diagnosed with tonsillar cancer, treatment is most often the following:

  • Surgical intervention. It is carried out by an external or transoral method. In the presence of metastases, it is sometimes necessary to remove the lower jaw. In some situations, lymph nodes with fiber are excised.
  • Radiation therapy. Before resorting to such therapy, it is necessary to sanitize the mouth. Then, the treatment or removal of the nodes is assigned. These measures help to avoid unpleasant complications.
  • Chemotherapy. This procedure is most often combined with radiotherapy. In cancer of tonsils, doctors recommend that chemotherapy with the drug "Cisplatin".

Radiation and chemotherapy are known to have a devastating effect on cancer. Although such treatment damages healthy cells of the body. It can provoke: general weakness, nausea, immunodeficiency. After such treatment, the patient must undergo a whole course of recovery of the body.

The most unpleasant feature of this ailment is its asymptomatic course in the initial stages. A person does not disturb anything at all, and yet the destructive process is already taking place in the body. That's why doctors do not get tired of repeating that one's health should be treated with the utmost care. If you are concerned about the throat, discomfort, discomfort and weakness in the body, immediately consult a doctor for help to avoid consequences.

cancer of the tonsils

Forecast of the disease

Unfortunately, this is a very serious and unpleasant disease - cancer of the amygdala. The prognosis for this pathology is not very pleasant. After all, as previously stated, the disease is most often diagnosed at later stages, since it does not betray itself on the initial stages.

But in some cases it is possible to determine the development of the disease at the very beginning. Typically, this happens during the examination of the patient for entirely different reasons.

There is a scale of indicators of life for five years, when the disease is detected:

  • 1st stage - 100%;
  • 2nd stage - 83%;
  • 3rd stage - up to 58%;
  • 4th stage - 29%.

Preventive measures

Can I reduce the chances of developing cancer? Doctors say that in most cases a person pushes himself toward the development of oncology. It is not for nothing that cancer is called a "man-made" disease. It is known that the serious prerequisites for the development of oncology are: carcinogens entering the body with food, alcohol, smoking, ignoring dental treatment, and non-compliance with oral hygiene. And this is far from a complete list of negative factors that can underlie the severe oncological diseases.

So, the main prevention methods are:

  • rejection of bad habits( alcohol, tobacco smoking);
  • observance of personal hygiene;
  • periodic inspection at the dentist and otolaryngologist;
  • Avoidance of carcinogens, ionizing radiation;
  • shield yourself from the risk of contracting HPV.

cancer tonsil treatment

Conclusion

But no matter how terrible the diagnosis may seem, it is quite possible to fight it. The main thing is to pay attention to those signals that the body shows about its problems. In case of unpleasant symptoms or discomfort, always consult a doctor. After all, any disease must begin to be treated at an early stage. And then the forecast will be most favorable.