Leffler's syndrome: symptoms and treatment
Why is it so important to undergo fluorography every year and periodically take blood tests? These studies allow early detection of some pulmonary diseases, because most of them are asymptomatic. These include the Leffler syndrome. Symptoms and treatment of the pathological process, as well as the main reasons will be considered in today's article.
Description of the disease
Under Leffler's syndrome, physicians perceive pulmonary allergy. When a reaction to a certain stimulus occurs in the organs of the respiratory system, seals are formed-infiltrates. They are filled with a separate type of blood cells, which are also a type of leukocytes and are called "eosinophils."
Elevated levels of these substances in a blood test usually indicate allergic / infectious processes in the body, infection with parasites or a tumor. Infiltrates are characterized by the ability to migrate to the affected organ. They can disappear by themselves and not leave behind even cicatricial changes.
For the first time, the eosinophilic lesion of the pulmonary system was described at the beginning of the 20th century. Since then, scientists have not been able to identify the Leffler syndrome in a specific medical framework. Even numerous studies failed to provide an answer regarding the exact causes and prerequisites for its occurrence. This is a real medical mystery. There is no specific information about age and social thresholds. In some studies, it is said that the syndrome affects only children, and the risk group includes residents of countries with tropical climates. However, this pathology successfully migrates all over the planet. Among the diseased there are both young people and representatives of old age.
Causes of infection
Despite the difficulties in identifying the etiology of the pathological process, doctors managed to identify a group of provocative factors. It is remarkable that symptoms characterizing the Leffler syndrome can arise after contact with animals and even during the treatment of other diseases.
Among the main sources of infection, doctors distinguish:
- Air allergens. The development of the syndrome is often observed as a response of the organism to pollen of plants or mold of fungi. Chemical reagents are especially dangerous.
- Medicines. The use of certain groups of drugs is an unlikely but acceptable cause of pulmonary eosinophilia. According to the conducted studies, the corresponding reaction could be detected on antibiotics, the active substances of which are penicillin and nitrofuran.
- Bacteria( some types of staphylococci, streptococci and brucella).Pathogenic flora is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person through a handshake, personal hygiene items and food. After that, it penetrates the body through open wounds. Do not exclude the airborne way of transmission of bacteria.
- Worms. Parasites enter the respiratory system 2-3 weeks after infection. These can be ascarids, intestinal ugrites, toxocares, trichinella or hookworms. The population occurs both from sick people, and after contact with animals.
The Leffler syndrome ICD-10( International Classification of Diseases) defines under the code J82.
Medical statistics of morbidity can identify a group of factors that make a person vulnerable to the syndrome. It's about specific habits and overall health.
Who is in the high-risk zone?
- Lovers of tobacco. Passive smokers also belong to this group. The addiction weakens the protective function of the lungs.
- Asthmatics. Approximately 50% of patients with confirmed pulmonary eosinophilia have a history of bronchial asthma.
- Infected with HIV.The main cause of the development of the pathological process is weakened immunity.
- Patients with oncological diseases.
- Travelers. Mostly this applies to tourists exploring the countries of Asia and Africa.
Belonging to one or several categories from the list above significantly increases the likelihood of pulmonary eosinophilia.
Clinical picture of
What has Leffler's syndrome symptoms? Among the main manifestations of the pathological process, doctors distinguish: fever, general malaise and weakness. Some patients suffer from a weak cough and the departure of yellowish sputum, which is explained by the presence of dead eosinophils.
In the image after X-ray examination, single or multiple foci of infiltration can be considered. At the same time, their size and localization vary. If the infected has a strong immune system, infiltrates usually resolve themselves within 2-3 weeks.
During auscultative diagnosis, one more symptom can be identified - dry wheezes. As a rule, they are found in the upper segments of the lungs. Biochemical blood test shows the presence of leukocytosis against the background of a large number of eosinophils( 60-80%).
The course of the pathological process of
This disease can occur in one of three forms. Let's consider each of the options in more detail.
- Simple form. Characterized by a mild clinical picture. During the cough, sputum is excreted with blood impurities, and discomfort appears in the trachea area. If the infection is caused by the penetration of helminths into the body, and their eggs are in the GI system, pancreatitis develops.
- Acute form. The Leffler syndrome begins with a sudden rise in temperature and is characterized by a severe course. The patient has symptoms of intoxication. In a short period of time, respiratory failure develops. Treatment is always conducted in a hospital.
- Chronic form. Most often found in women suffering from bronchial asthma. Among the main symptoms of the doctors are a strong sweating, weight loss and shortness of breath.
Determining the form of the pathological process helps to choose the right therapy.
The clinical picture described above is not sufficient evidence to support the Leffler syndrome. Symptoms in children of this pathology and in adults are practically the same, therefore a general comprehensive examination is assigned to all categories of patients. It consists of the following activities:
- X-ray. In the picture with pulmonary eosinophilia, dark spots can be clearly seen. This is infiltration.
- Blood test. Normally, in the blood of a healthy person, the number of eosinophils should not exceed 5-10%.An increase in this indicator to 20-80% allows one to suspect the Leffler syndrome. The number of eosinophils in children in a healthy body does not differ from this parameter in adults.
- Sputum analysis. The secret is checked for the presence of crystalline formations from the enzymes of eosinophils.
- Stool analysis. It is carried out to identify parasites in the body.
- Allergological tests.
An important component of the diagnosis is the study of the patient's anamnesis. This is an integral part of the process of establishing the causes and circumstances of infection. Without these components it is impossible to appoint competent treatment.
Quite often in special treatment, Leffler's syndrome does not need. Symptoms in adults and children within a short period of time pass by themselves and never appear again. The only scientific explanation for this fact is the absence of contact with the allergen.
In other cases, therapy is reduced to the exclusion of factors provoking its development. For example, parasites infect the body with helminths. If the cause is in the medications being taken, analog agents are selected.
Sometimes Leffler's syndrome can not be defeated even after intensive therapy. In this case, you may need to connect to the ventilator and more stressful medication. Among the drugs that are prescribed in the fight against pulmonary eosinophilia, we can distinguish:
- Steroid hormones. The most effective is "Prednisolone".Its long application promotes the accelerated "resorption" of infiltrates. If the positive dynamics are not observed, it is advisable to conduct a re-diagnosis. Most likely, the patient has an inflammation of a different type.
- Anti-asthmatic agents( "Aminophylline").
- Expectorant pills. To improve the process of sputum discharge, patients are prescribed mucolytics( Lazolvan, Ambroxol).If there are problems with the GI tract, it is recommended to take these drugs in the form of inhalations.
Only a doctor can prescribe medication. Self-medication is not recommended, since it is difficult for an average person to calculate the dosage of drugs and the duration of their administration. Otherwise, it is rare to avoid serious complications.
Antiparasitic course of treatment
Leffler's syndrome with ascariasis is a fairly common phenomenon. Therefore, it is advisable to consider separately what medicines are used to combat this problem. If you believe the doctors, well-proven:
- "Pirantel."Struggles with nematodes, achieving neuromuscular blockade in sensitive parasites. As a result, they are successfully removed from the digestive tract.
- "Karbendatsim".The active substances penetrate through the helminth shell, paralyzing it. As a consequence, the parasite loses its ability to fix itself in the intestinal lumen.
- "Mebendazole".This drug is effective against most worms known to medicine.
In case of severe form of helminthic invasion, when the listed medicines do not cope with their primary task, the patient is hospitalized. Otherwise, complete dehydration may occur.
Consequences for the body
Leffler's syndrome is well treatable. From therapy it is not necessary to refuse even within a month after disappearance of symptoms. Otherwise the inflammatory process will continue to progress, and the allergy will provoke pulmonary edema. Also, do not exclude fibrosis - this is another complication of the syndrome. It is accompanied by irreversible scarring of lung tissue. The disease can affect the work of the heart system, digestive organs. Against the backdrop of developing oxygen deficiency is not excluded the violation of the functions of the brain.
It is separately necessary to talk about relapse events. Most often, they have to face because of incorrect or untimely diagnosis, poor treatment. After the course of therapy, the patient may look quite healthy. However, ordinary stress or regular contact with an allergen provokes another relapse.
Is it possible to prevent a disease from Leffler? That this is really a dangerous disease, now there is no doubt. Therefore, many people at risk are interested in prevention issues.
The main preventive measure is a regular visit to the allergist's office. If the pathology is different from this etiology, it is necessary to strictly follow the advice of a specialist and take the recommended medications. You need to buy a standard set of medications by means of which you can stop the next attack of allergy.