In the human body there are smart cells that always know where protection weakens and the disease begins to germinate. The name of such a guardian of health is leukocyte. It is he who is actively fighting against foreign microorganisms. There is a certain hierarchy of leukocytes, each type is responsible for specific processes.
What is the leukocytes
Leukocytes are special cells that do not have color. Their shape is often round, the structure includes the core. These components of blood are formed in organs such as the spleen, lymph nodes. Another organ of their origin is the bone marrow.
The level of leukocytes in the blood is less than that of red blood cells. In general, in one cubic milliliter of blood there are about 400,000 white blood cells. These cells take an active part in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms. The immunity of a person depends to a large extent on the ability of leukocytes to prevent the penetration of microbes into the body. The following types of blood cells are distinguished: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils - they form a granulocyte series. Monocytes, lymphocytes are representatives of agranulocytes.
Neutrophils: structure and characteristics
This is the largest group of white blood cells. In the human body, they account for up to 70% of all leukocytes. The given subtype of cells has received the name because of ability to be painted as the basic dyes, and an eosin( at carrying out of researches of cellular structures).
Since leukocyte is an instrument for fighting pathogenic cells, neutrophils release special substances that neutralize bacteria. Only a small part of these cells is in the blood( in the ordinary state it is about 1%).The whole bulk is located in the tissues of the body.
Neutrophils are the first to detect the affected area. If the number of leukocytes of this type increases, then talk about neutrophilia. The causes of this phenomenon are infectious diseases( bacterial or fungal nature), inflammatory processes, the presence of tumors. Also, their growth can be provoked by bleeding, the taking of certain drugs, damage( including necrosis) of tissues. If the number of neutrophils is reduced( neutropenia), then, perhaps, a person has a viral infection, radiotherapy has been carried out, the spleen is enlarged.
Eosinophils: features of this group of cells
Eosinophilic leukocyte is the main enemy of toxins and reaction products such as antigen-antibody. It is these cells that perform the function of purifying and detoxifying blood. They also contribute to the healing of wounds and protect the body from allergic reactions. Their number depends on the time of day and age. For example, at night, eosinophils are significantly higher. Such leukocytes in children have somewhat higher indices than in adults( 1-7% and 1-5%, respectively).If their number increases, this may indicate the occurrence of allergic reactions, the presence of worms, malignant tumors. Also, this phenomenon is observed with cirrhosis of the liver, ulcers, dermatitis. But with infectious diseases, high rates carry positive information - the stage of recovery is near. A low number of eosinophils indicates depletion and stress( the period after surgery, trauma, constant lack of sleep).
Characteristics of basophils
The number of such blood cells is one of the smallest - about 1%.Their size is much larger than neutrophils and eosinophils. Such a leukocyte is an active participant in allergic reactions. Basophils are responsible for the occurrence of symptoms of hives, other manifestations of allergies. Due to the presence of these cells in the blood, the poisons of animals, insects do not disperse throughout the body when they enter the body, but are blocked. An increase in the number of basophils indicates a violation of the thyroid gland, ulcerative colitis. But not always a high level indicates the presence of the disease. Sometimes this phenomenon occurs due to malnutrition, iron deficiency. Low basophils are observed during pregnancy, ovulation, and some medications. It can also talk about getting infected with worms.
Monocytes are called such leukocytes, in which there are no granules. These cells are oval in shape, they form in the bone marrow. The total amount reaches 10%.The life cycle of monocytes lasts an average of 30 days. To the place of defeat, they arrive immediately after neutrophils and have a remarkable bactericidal effect. They are also able to absorb all kinds of foreign cells. If neutrophils decrease, the number of monocytes can increase( to ensure all necessary functions).If the number of leukocytes of this type exceeds the norm, then we can talk about the presence of infectious diseases( eg, influenza), malaria, tuberculosis, leukemia. Reduction of their quantity characterizes such a condition as anemia. If the level of monocytes approaches zero, the doctor can diagnose very serious diseases( leukemia, sepsis).
features These blood cells are "long-lived", they can function for several decades. Among the main functions of these drugs are the maintenance of immunity, the production of antibodies. In addition, it is they who keep information about the human diseases( thus, some types of disease only occur once).
A very important ability of lymphocytes is the destruction of cells in which mutation processes occur. Among all blood cells, their number is at the level of up to 35%.Leukocytes in children of this kind have even greater indicators. In the first months of life, the level of lymphocytes reaches 70%, from 6 to 15 years it decreases to 50%.Most often, their high rates are observed in viral infections. If the amount significantly exceeds the norm, then there is a suspicion of a bone marrow tumor. Leukocytes in children of this type increase with measles, mumps, chickenpox, and rubella. A decrease in the number of lymphocytes can signal a bacterial type infection, lymphoma.
Leukocytosis is a dangerous condition. What does it mean? The leukocytes in the body are in more quantity than the norm indicators. Their level can indicate to a specialist for the presence of certain types of diseases.
So, with an increase in the level of leukocytes, we can talk about the presence of infection, inflammatory processes in the body. If their number reaches huge indicators, then in this situation a serious illness is often diagnosed( leukemia, leukemia).Do not forget that the level of white blood cells affects the quality of nutrition, and stressful situations. A lot of white blood cells are observed with physical activity.