Spinal anesthesia - ideal anesthesia during surgery
To date, spinal anesthesia is one of the most effective methods of anesthesia, used in operations on the lower part of the trunk. By its principle, this method is similar to epidural anesthesia, but it differs somewhat from it.
What is an anesthetic of
During anesthesia, the doctor injects the medicine directly into the spinal cord, which allows you to block the nerves responsible for sensitive impulses. In this case, the patient feels cold, coming from the spine to the legs, a little later the lower part of the body is completely numb. The duration of the drug is up to 2 hours. Then the movements and sensitivity begin to recover.
Before performing the surgery, ask what types of anesthesia are used in the hospital, and choose the most suitable option for yourself. During the operation with the use of spinal anesthesia, the patient is in a state of wakefulness. However, the combination of general anesthesia and anesthesia cures postoperative pain.
Spinal anesthesia is often used during:
- Gynecological operations, incl.with the removal of the uterus
- Orthopedic operations
- With the immobilization or fracture of the femoral neck
Doctors during the implementation of the planned cesarean section increasingly prefer it is spinal anesthesia. The mother is in a state of wakefulness, which has a favorable effect on the general condition of the child. However, in some cases, doctors also use an oxygen mask. If the patient feels uncomfortable, then an additional dose of intravenous analgesics is injected, in extreme cases, they are transferred to general anesthesia.
Procedure for the implementation of
The procedure for the administration of the drug is carried out in two ways. The patient sits on the edge of the operating table and, leaning his elbows on his knees, leans forward. You can enter the means and lying. The patient is placed on the left side, and they suggest that the knees and hips be bent as much as possible. Regardless of the chosen method, the doctor tries to reach the maximum bent back.
The main contraindications for performing spinal anesthesia are:
- Wrong patient refusal
- Increased intracranial pressure
- Fetal hypopsy
- Heart rate disorder, heart defects
- Blood clotting disorder
- Dehydration or blood loss
- CNS( central nervous system) diseases
- Fetal death
- No prerequisites
- Allergic reactions to analGetik
- skin infections
Advantages and disadvantages
Spinal anesthesia has a number of advantages, significantly differentiate it from other types of pain relief.
- Management of postoperative pain. This circumstance makes it possible to exclude the additional administration of morphine-based drugs.
- Speed. The drug is injected directly into the spinal cord, so it is much more effective, and the action begins much faster than with epidural anesthesia.
In addition to the advantages, it has its own and disadvantages, which include:
- Sharp pressure reduction. It occurs as a result of venous congestion and arteriolar dilatation. In this case, lifting the legs helps restore blood flow and normalize the pressure.
- Headache can manifest itself long enough( up to 4 days after surgery).
- Nausea is a major side effect caused by hypoxia, bradycardia and hypotension.
- Back pain. This circumstance may be caused by ligament tension, a traumatic injury or a prolonged stay on a hard operating table. Usually the pain is already on the second day.
- Hearing loss mainly occurs as a result of using larger needles( 27 G).The complication is mild and short, but can be of some concern to some patients.
Spinal anesthesia, the consequences of which are not critical, is an excellent way of anesthetizing the operation. It is practically safe, perfectly relaxes the abdominal press and effectively relieves pain. The absence of a negative effect on the fetus makes it possible to use this anesthesia even in obstetrical operations. Spinal anesthesia plays a key role in performing operations in the lower part of the body.