Keratolytic agents: names and methods of application
To preserve the beauty and youth of the skin or to heal the epidermis from skin ailments accompanied by hyperkeratosis, keratolytic agents help. It is known that the daily renewal of the skin is associated with the death of millions of cells on its surface, the accumulation of which leads to keratinization of the epidermis, uneven and dull color of the face, peeling, fine wrinkles and clogged pores. Regular exfoliation of the scales stimulates the regeneration of the epidermis, gives it a healthy appearance and pleasant velvety. In the case when, due to various diseases, the process of rejection of necrotic cells is disrupted, hyperkeratosis develops - excessive keratinization. This phenomenon can have both a local form( in separate areas) and a generalized( throughout the body).
What are keratolytic agents?
These are external medicinal products used for cosmetic and medical purposes. This term comes from the merger of two words: "keratin" is the main structural protein that forms the epidermis( including calluses and corns), hair and nails, and "lysis," meaning "dissolution and decay."Destroying the structure of keratin, preparations of keratolytic action are able to soften, dissolve and facilitate the rejection of the stratum corneum on the surface of the epidermis, nail plates and hair, to have a therapeutic effect in many skin diseases. Keratolytics with low concentration have a light exfoliating effect and perfectly cope with many cosmetic defects. Modern keratolytic agents are available in the form of ointments, plasters, powders, varnishes, collodion, solutions and pastes. In cosmetology, a similar but less concentrated effect is exfoliated, depilatory creams and other products for delicate peeling containing acids in its composition.
The names of the components exfoliating the stratum corneum
Keratolytic action has acids: salicylic( in a concentration of 5 to 60%), lactic( 10 to 20%), benzoic( 5 to 15%), trichloroacetic( 10%), pyrrogallicfrom 10 to 20%), as well as urea( 10 to 50%), resorcinol( 10 to 20%), potassium iodide( 50%), barium sulfide( 15%), thymol and phenol( 5%).These keratolytic agents are active components of patches, lacquers, ointments( often used for compresses or occlusive dressings), more rarely - in pastes and solutions. Indications for the prescription of this group of drugs are:
- Hyperkeratosis, especially palmar-plantar localization - psoriasis, tylotic eczema, mycoses and omozolelosti.
- Onychomycosis, in which the softening and removal of the affected nail plates is a necessity.
- Skin ailments that require exfoliating procedures - dermatoses with a characteristic excess of cornified epithelial cells on the affected areas( psoriasis, erythroderma, chronic eczema, certain types of toxicodermia, reminiscent of the symptoms of hyper- and parakeratosis).In these cases, salicylic acid, naphthalene or tar of low concentration( no more than 3-5%) is used in special ointments, creams and emulsions with emollients and oil vitamins A and E normalizing the process of cell regeneration.
- Hyperpigmentation( occurring more often on the face), in which keratolitics are combined with bleaching agents.
Soft peels and their concentration
Unlike mechanical scrubs that scratch the skin, keratolytic agents soften and loosen the cornified layer, dissolve it, which favors its safe rejection."Squamolytic effect"( exfoliation) provides removal of excess horny mass from problem areas of the skin( acne or psoriasis), seals on calluses and corns, hair - with hypertrichosis, and also rejection of deformed nail plates. The keratolytic effect of this group of drugs is manifested during the procedures of chemical( acidic) peeling. In high concentration, they are used by professionals. Acid exfoliates of lower saturation have a superficial exfoliating action, and in small doses - a keratoplastic effect, that is, restoring the natural process of formation of the stratum corneum.
Pharmacodermatology in the fight against excessive cornification of the dermis
In light forms of acne or moderate severity of the disease, salicylic acid and preparations based on it have the most pronounced effect: powders that contain 2-5% of the active substance, pastes and ointments with a concentration of 1-10%, and alcohol solutions for home use( notmore than 1-2%).
For the treatment of severe acne, aromatic retinoids can be used. Leaders among the funds of this group are "Differin"( gel, cream) or "Isotretinoin", as well as "Roaccutane".
To treat complex forms of acne, dermatologists prescribe keratolytic drugs, the names of which are widely known in pharmacodermatology:
- "Baziron AS".
- Akriderm SK.
- "Tretinoin"( "Airol").
- "Lorinden A".
These drugs have, in addition to keratolytic, anti-inflammatory properties, which has a good effect on the treatment of acne. In psoriasis, hyperkeratosis and other skin ailments, both the listed keratolytic preparations and Betadermic, Betnoveit S, Keratolan, Lokasalen, Elokom S and Kerasal can be used in complex therapy. These ointments refer to anti-inflammatory non-steroidal agents intended for external use. These drugs are also prescribed for eczema, ichthyosis, oily seborrhea and hyperhidrosis( excessive sweating).
Keratolytics are beneficial for all inflammatory and infectious skin lesions, with warts, calluses, corns, burns and hyperpigmentation. Cosmetologists often recommend for treatment preparations based on glycolic acid in a concentration of 10-20%, but they are assigned individually to solve a particular aesthetic task.
Keratolytics from corns and calluses
Long wearing of women's shoes with high heels and other uncomfortable shoes provokes excessive cornification of the skin on the soles of the feet. The need to get rid of corns and dry calluses - these painful formations on the skin that have arisen due to mechanical irritation and pressure on the soles of the feet - is associated with the use of drugs with extreme values of Ph( acid content in the substance).
Alkalis and acids are the main components that destroy the dense stratum corneum. On their basis, keratolytic agents are created from corns:
- treatment and prophylactic foot paste "5 days";
- creams "Namozol 911"( based on tea tree extract), "Super Antimozolin"( base - lactic acid) and "Green Planet"( with lactic acid and oils);
- quality, but expensive, Norwegian cream with urea Neutrogena, TianDe( with snake fat);
- therapeutic and preventive tincture for pedicure Gehwol;
- cream "Doctor"( with healing urea);
- ointments "Bensalitin"( base - benzoic and salicylic acid);
- is a colorless solution for external application of "Collomac"( the main components are salicylic and lactic acid together with polidocanol).
Keratolytic remedies for calluses are the above mentioned preparations that perfectly cope with calluses, and an ointment based on salicylic acid, and corn oil( alcohol solution), and cream "Venetia Sibiri"( with antifungal action), as well as many others.
Popular keratoplastic remedies for corns
Compeed quality plasters reduce the mechanical effect on the skin, relieve pain and can be used for several days until the trampled skin becomes tender and does not come off. Another, not less known remedy for calluses is the Chinese corn plaster "Shuyangsuuan".These red plates with the applied active substance are pasted on the steamed and dried skin. Use them for at least six days. The "Salipod" patch with antiseptic and antifungal effect contains salicylic acid, sulfur, which dries the skin, is stuck on the corn and lasts two days. After four applications, as a rule, the keratinization is softened and descends. Urgo keratolytic agent in the form of a patch is made on the basis of wheat germ oil and can be of two types: medical corn patch and usual protective.
Keratolytics for quality pedicure: we treat the
plate. Nails can deteriorate in people suffering from diabetes, psoriasis, eczema, flat leaf and other skin diseases. Also on the plates sometimes occur areas affected by the fungus, bacteria or viruses. One way to remove a deformed plate is chemical, when keratolytic nail products are applied to their horny parts and dissolve the defect. These properties are patches with a concentration of 20 to 50% urea and powder of onycholysin, which contains 15% of barium sulphate( in talc).For example, the combined preparation "Mycosorp"( ointment) contains 40% urea and 1% antifungal component - bifonazole. This drug is manufactured by Bayer( Germany) in the form of a cream, solution and a special kit for the treatment of nails with the same concentration of the active ingredient.
All drugs in this group contain keratolytic components( urea and salicylic acid in high concentrations), an antifungal agent( bifonazole or ketoconazole) and an antiseptic( quinazole or iodine).Fixation of a simple or complex lead plaster, "Ureaplast", trichloroacetic( CCL3COOH), salicylic or soap-salicylic patch on the nail plate will accelerate the destruction of the defective site of the nail, which must be periodically sawed and cleaned.