Autoimmune gastritis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
This inflammatory disease of the stomach, as an autoimmune gastritis, is rare, it is detected only in 10% of the population. The disease is genetic in nature and occurs under certain conditions. What exactly - science has not yet been clearly established. It can only be noted that the provoking factors are advanced age and malnutrition. Consider the characteristic symptoms of this disease, its diagnosis and treatment.
How does this pathological process proceed?
The digestive system of a person with this disease begins to eat itself. In other words, the immune system, producing specific antibodies, destroys the normal cells that make up the gastric mucosa. This leads to a decrease in the acidity of the gastric juice, the food stops digesting and its decay begins, and the nutrients are not absorbed into the tissues or into the total bloodstream. A person, having taken food, feels a strong pain in the lower abdomen. Because of this, he ceases to eat anything, and after a while develops dystrophy and anorexia.
Causes of occurrence of
For what reason does a person develop such a pathology? Scientists tend to believe that the disorder of immunity is hereditary in nature. In addition, autoimmune gastritis can cause an infection in the body, for example, cytomegalovirus, herpes, as well as the hardest Epstein-Barr virus. The causative agent of such infection is introduced not only into the tissue, but also into internal organs, causing the immunity to destroy the gastrointestinal tract. In any case, the cause of this disease is established individually.
The characteristic symptoms of the pathology are as follows:
- lethargy and severe fatigue;
- an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth;
- loss of appetite;
- person notices that he has gurgling in his stomach;
- heartburn, belching, mild nausea, constipation or diarrhea;
- severe sweating, dizziness;
- pallor of the skin;
- thinning of nails.
In addition, a clear sign of autoimmune gastritis is nervousness, irritability, emotionality. This is explained by the fact that the body begins to lack the vitamins B12 and B9, resulting in anemia and neurological disorders.
These symptoms do not occur immediately at the time of the onset of the disease and can manifest themselves both together and separately.
To be effective, it is very important to make an accurate diagnosis on time. Many in this case go to the gastroenterological center, where the following diagnostic activities are carried out:
- Fibrogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy. At an early stage of the development of the disease, the swelling of the mucosa, its hyperemia, the presence of ulcers and erosions are revealed. If the disease has acquired a chronic character, the mucous membrane of the stomach becomes pale, atrophic, with small areas of degeneration of the cells of the epithelium.
- X-ray of the stomach, esophagus and duodenum.
- Immunological examination of blood, because in 30% of patients, autoimmune disorders are also detected in other organs.
- Sensing of the stomach, which determines the acidity of the fluid of this organ and the presence of Helicobacter.
- Carrying out a polymerase chain reaction that allows to determine the constituent DNA of viruses in the patient's fluids and tissues. In 7.1% of patients with autoimmune gastritis, the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus, which causes mononucleosis, is detected.
- ultrasound of the abdominal cavity. In 80% of cases, patients have an enlarged liver with a change in its structure, in 17% of patients, the spleen is enlarged, and peripheral lymph nodes are enlarged and compacted.
Who prescribes treatment?
Usually, if a patient turns to the gastroenterological center, two specialists - an immunologist and a gastroenterologist - are examined and treated further.
A physician-immunologist determines at what stage of development this disease is and how it is possible to suspend further destruction of the gastrointestinal tract.
The gastroenterologist carries out therapeutic measures in relation to the damaged mucous membrane of the stomach, appoints the appropriate treatment, with the help of which the function of the gastrointestinal tract, disturbed during the development of the disease, is restored.
If autoimmune gastritis is diagnosed, treatment should be individualized. It depends on the form of the disease, the stage of development, the expressed symptoms and the changes that have occurred in other organs. Treatment should be aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease, as well as the fight against Helicobacter and viral infection, changes in the nervous and cardiovascular systems.
Basic principles of treatment of
If an autoimmune gastritis is detected, the patient should adhere to a special diet. In this case, it is necessary to exclude from the diet cold and hot food, which must be mechanically, thermally and chemically sparing. Under the ban, sharp, salty, spicy, fried foods. The diet should be protein( including fish steamed or skimmed boiled meat), containing vitamins and fiber( jelly, cereal, mousse, dairy products, mashed or boiled fruits and vegetables).You can not use coffee, sweet dishes, cakes, tea, cakes, sweets. Food should be taken only in a warm form.
If the patient suffers from severe pain, the doctor prescribes anticholinergics( Metacin, Platifillin), antispasmodics( Papaverin, No-shpa), as well as drugs designed to reduce the motor activity of the intestines and stomach( Cerucal, "Motilium").
To improve the condition of the gastric mucosa, the following drugs are prescribed: "Venter", "Bismuth", "Plantaglucid", and to reduce acidity - Almagel, Ranitidine and others.
With pronounced mucosal atrophy, substitution therapy is prescribed: "Abomin", "Mezim", "Acidin-pepsin", "Panzinorm", "Pankurmen", preparations that cleanse the intestinal microflora, multivitamins.
If necessary, antimicrobial and antiviral agents should be taken. Only according to the indications, phytotherapy, massage, exercise therapy, physiotherapy, reflexotherapy, balneotherapy are carried out.
Also many patients use traditional medicine to relieve the condition. Autoimmune gastritis, some treated with plantain juice and natural sea-buckthorn oil, but in any case, therapy should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor.
Possible complications of
If the disease does not begin to be treated in a timely manner, the atrophy of the mucosa will only progress, and the symptoms will intensify. As a result, there may be adenocarcinoma. Also, negligent attitude towards health leads to iron deficiency anemia and polyhypovitaminosis.
Thus, if a person suddenly notices that gurgling in the abdomen, heartburn occurs, there is bad breath and other strange manifestations of the body, then he should consult a doctor as soon as possible. Often this indicates the development of autoimmune gastritis, untimely treatment of which leads to severe complications.