Premenstrual syndrome - what is it? PMS: symptoms, treatment
Mood swings, flashes of anger, tearfulness and irritability - a combination of these feelings clearly points to premenstrual syndrome. What it is, many women know the fair sex, but they can not control their condition. Some girls and women noticeably worsen their well-being, and pain before menstruation is a very real reason to go to a doctor.
Complicated mechanism of
Menstruation in women is directly related to the continuation of the genus. The first day is considered the beginning of the cycle, and each stage is aimed at preparing for conception.
During the menstrual phase, there is a rejection of the uterine mucosa, which is accompanied by bleeding. The first occurrence of menstruation occurs on average in 12-14 years. Over time, the cycle is established, and its duration is from 21 to 35 days.
Absence of menstruation can signal pregnancy or serious illnesses. In addition, women's health deserves special attention in various disorders, such as dysmenorrhea( painful menstruation) or increased bleeding.
If you add to these problems manifestations of premenstrual syndrome, then some girls and women just do not envy.
PMS( premenstrual syndrome) is a complex complex of symptoms that occurs in women on average 1-10 days before menstruation. The study of this state people have been dealing with since ancient times. In ancient Rome, for example, doctors linked the ailments before menstruation with the place of residence and even with the phases of the moon.
According to official data, Russian scientists Dmitri Ott and Alexander Repetov for the first time conducted scientific research on physiological parameters and cyclicity of their oscillations. Then, in 1931, Robert Frank announced in his article the term "premenstrual tension," and ten years later, psychosexual disorders during PMS were described by Lewis Gray.
Research and scientific studies have enabled the World Health Organization to include premenstrual syndrome in the classification of diseases. What it is, the methods of diagnosis, the causes of the appearance, recommendations for alleviating the condition - read about all this in our review.
There is no consensus on the emergence of PMS today, but experts still managed to formulate a number of reasons:
- hereditary predisposition;
- violation of water-salt metabolism;
- hormonal failures;
- diseases of the thyroid gland;
- a deficiency of vitamins( magnesium, zinc, calcium, vitamin B6).
The risk factors for the development of ICP include depressions and stresses, living in large cities, late reproductive age, lack of physical activity and imbalance in nutrition.
Some studies show that overweight and smoking affect the likelihood of developing premenstrual syndrome.
There is a huge amount of anecdotes and joking stories about premenstrual syndrome in women. However, an impressive list of symptoms leaves little reason for fun.
Modern medicine identifies the following forms of PMS:
- Neuropsychic. This form is characterized by symptoms such as acute perception of noise, increased fatigue, weakness, disturbance of sleep patterns, absent-mindedness, headaches, obstructed speech and even fainting. Aggressiveness and irritability often lead to conflicts in the family and at work, as well as to making rash decisions.
- Otter. Weight gain of several kilograms does not improve mood, there are edemas of legs and hands. Sometimes girls and women experience joint pain and cramps. The chest before the months hurts, the whole body seems filled with fluid.
- Cephalic. Pulsating headaches are observed, accompanied by nausea or vomiting. However, blood pressure remains unchanged. In addition, a third of patients have pain in the heart, numbness of hands, excessive sweating and depression.
- Creeping .Panic attack, which is the beginning of an increase in blood pressure. Then there is a rapid heartbeat and a fear of death. Such seizures are most often disturbed in the evening and at night, and aggravate the situation with various stresses, fatigue or infectious diseases.
Specialists also distinguish atypical form of PMS, among the symptoms of which there are allergic reactions, skin rashes, traumatic pain in the lower back and lower abdomen, nosebleeds, fever.
In medicine, PMS is divided into three stages:
- compensated( symptomatology disappears with the onset of menstruation, the disease does not develop with age);
- subcompensated( symptoms cease to bother with the end of menstruation, the clinic of premenstrual syndrome worsens over the years);
- decompensated( symptoms are manifested a few days after the end of menstruation).
As you may have noticed, PMS in some cases is not at all like a slight malaise. In severe form, this disease can seriously affect the ability to work and well-being. Of course, do not panic because of increased fatigue or muscle pain. However, if you have more than six symptoms, be sure to make an appointment with a doctor who can diagnose "premenstrual syndrome" with the help of research.
It is very important to distinguish real symptoms from inability to control their emotions and displays of bad manners or bad character. Premenstrual syndrome is characterized by cyclicity. In other words, the same symptoms should disturb a woman with a certain periodicity.
Often the syndrome of premenstrual tension is confused with other diseases, so for an accurate diagnosis, contact a specialist. During the diagnosis, a blood test is required( in different phases of the menstrual cycle).The level of hormones( progesterone, estradiol and prolactin) allows us to draw conclusions about the form of PMS.
Depending on the results of the analysis and complaints of the patient, the attending physician may refer it to other specialists( psychiatrist, endocrinologist, therapist and neurologist) or to prescribe additional studies( MRI, mammography, EEG, blood pressure control and others).
In addition, all patients with PMS are recommended to describe their condition in detail and to maintain a "complaint diary", which will also help in diagnosis.
How to relieve premenstrual syndrome?
Millions of women ask this question, perfectly realizing that living in a bad state of health and mood for even a week is just unbearable. The most accessible measure is the revision of the diet.
It is believed that the use of complex carbohydrates( cereals and vegetables) helps to relive the condition before the menstruation easier. Some experts also talk about restricting the consumption of sweets and sugar, but from the point of view of easing the symptoms of PMS this measure has not been fully studied.
It is advisable to control the flow of salt, because the body and so has a tendency to edema associated with fluid retention. Salted foods only aggravate the situation.
Finally, coffee. Studies have shown that women with severe PMS use much more coffee. Today, there is no clear opinion about whether an invigorating drink and premenstrual syndrome are related. What it is and the reasons for the latter's emergence are already known to us, but it helps or worsens the situation of coffee, it's probably worth solving individually.
Pains before menstruation can make serious adjustments to your plans. However, experts advise not to give up light physical exertion. Swimming, walking, yoga or dancing help reduce symptoms and quite accurately improve your mood.
If your chest hurts before the month, then help with unpleasant sensations and heightened sensitivity will help the supporting underwear.
Of course, the instant disappearance of symptoms of PMS should not be expected, but you can make your first conclusions in 3-4 months. In most cases, these recommendations eliminate the need for drug treatment.
As alternative methods of fighting premenstrual syndrome, various types of massage, physiotherapy, reflexology and balneotherapy can be recommended.
Many experts who study women's health, the most effective think acupressure. Stimulation of biologically active points increases vitality and enhances the body's ability to self-regulation.
Pharmacotherapy is the main method, but completely cure premenstrual syndrome pills will definitely not help. It is believed that PMS is a chronic disease, and some drugs only improve the quality of life by removing symptoms.
Please note that all medicines are prescribed by a doctor, and no life stories or advice from "girlfriends for misfortune" will replace a specialist's consultation. Our review is of a fact-finding character, and if you think that one of the drugs could help you, then definitely discuss this point with your doctor.
Depending on the form of PMS, the following groups are distinguished:
- Combined oral contraceptives.
- Drugs for the treatment of symptoms.
- Hormonal preparations.
- Antiprostaglandin preparations.
Vitamins and minerals
Patients with mild forms of premenstrual syndrome are primarily prescribed non-hormonal drugs - homeopathy, vitamins and minerals. Efficacy and minimal side effects are the main advantages of such drugs. In addition, non-hormonal drugs are not perceived "as a medicine."
According to studies, magnesium orotate helps to reduce swelling and bloating. Liquid calcium and increased appetite are affected by calcium carbonate, and vitamins of the B group are able to cope with psychoemotional manifestations of the disease.
These are diuretics, whose purpose is justified in the edematous form of PMS.One of the most effective and safe is "Spironolactone"( analogue - "Veroshpiron").The drug increases the excretion of sodium and chlorine ions, water, reduces the titratable acidity of urine. Has hypotensive effect.
The initial daily dose is 25 mg( maximum 100 mg).Specialists consider it expedient to take diuretics during the expected fluid retention, that is, from the 16th to the 25th day of the menstrual cycle.
Among the side effects observed: hypotension, drowsiness, decreased libido and violation of the menstrual cycle.
The use of combined oral contraceptives is the most common tactic in the treatment of premenstrual syndromes. To date, treating doctors prefer COC containing drospirenone. This substance is an analog of natural progesterone.
The composition of one of the most famous drugs called "Yarina" is a combination of progestin drospirenone( 3 mg) and ethinyl estradiol( 30 μg).In patients taking this COC, there was a slight decrease in body weight and no fluid retention in the body. In addition, drospirenone has an effect on the secretion of the sebaceous glands, which reduces the amount of rashes on the skin before menstruation.
Contraceptives containing drospirenone have a minimal amount of side effects. However, despite the effectiveness of the drug, symptoms of PMS( swelling, tenderness of the mammary glands, headaches and bloating) may return after a seven-day break. For this reason, it is advisable to introduce an extended COC administration regimen.
To eliminate psychological symptoms, the attending physician often prescribes antidepressants( "Sertraline", "Fluoxetine"), the effectiveness of which has been proven by many clinical studies.
In the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, unlike the treatment of depression, these drugs are prescribed in shorter courses and in smaller doses. There are two treatment regimens:
- taking the medicine in case of a symptom;
- taking the medicine in the second half of the menstrual cycle.
For many women, taking antidepressants is an effective way to eliminate symptoms almost completely.
However, in some cases, the result is not enough, so the doctor may decide to increase the dose or prescribe another drug.
Admission of antidepressants should be accompanied by a diary and detailed notes on health. In spite of the fact that the improvement can come already in two days after the beginning of the course, the competent expert will make conclusions about the effectiveness only after observing 2-4 menstrual cycles.
In rare cases, stopping the use of antidepressants can cause nausea, dizziness and irritability. Fortunately, these symptoms pass fairly quickly.
Antidepressants, hormonal drugs and oral contraceptives have many side effects, therefore, in the first place, the fair sex recalls people's methods.
So, what herbs will help us overcome PMS:
- Melissa .Prepare a healing infusion at the rate of 2 tbsp.l.dry plant on a glass of boiling water. This drink eliminates irritability, soothes and relieves pain. Improve the result will help a mixture of lemon balm, chamomile, jasmine, mint and valerian.
- Calendula, leaves of plantain, root of calamus and arnica flowers. Gauze strips are moistened with gauze, which are applied to the body to reduce edema. Yarrow and jasmine. Against pain in the lower back and abdomen, pour boiling yarrow( 40 g) and jasmine flowers( 30 g).In a day you need to drink three cups of infusion.
Myth or Reality?
So, we are talking about a disease such as premenstrual syndrome. Many girls and women know perfectly well what it is, but only 3-6% of the fairer sex population are diagnosed with "premenstrual dysphoric disorder"( PMDR).This disease imposes a serious imprint, restricts communication with people and social life, and also increases the number of days of incapacity for work. In patients with mental illness, their exacerbation is observed.
It is interesting that some scientists in general question the presence of such pathologies as PMDD and premenstrual syndrome. The causes of the latter are not at all proven, and most studies rely only on reports of well-being. Agree, this point of view has the right to exist. Moreover, Western girls and women often almost awake to the appearance of PMS, rather than seemingly programming themselves for the sensation of certain symptoms.