How do the operations? Indications, training and types. How much do the operation?
Although it is believed that the body is a complex self-regulating system, sometimes it can not do without surgical intervention. In the animal world, the rule of natural selection is that the survivor is the one who is stronger, sturdier, healthier. Human life is expensive to put such experiments. Therefore, people with serious disruptions of the body's work are resolved for surgical intervention to correct the painful condition. Before doing the operations, we weigh the pros and cons, given the chances of improvement and the risks of negative consequences.
The decision to perform a surgical intervention is made taking into account the indications. They can have a relative nature - to touch on the issues of correcting a morbid condition that are not of extreme necessity - and absolute - to respond to threats associated with a real and obvious danger to life. Postpone such operations can only be in the presence of agony in the patient.
In determining the indications, a rationale for the urgency of the intervention is usually given immediately. At this stage, they are determined with the possibility of holding it. The operating conditions, the availability of the necessary equipment and tools, the possibility of additional examination, the collection of biomaterials for analyzes are taken into account.
Even if a doctor has confidence that an operation is needed and can be performed, he must obtain permission from the patient or the persons representing him( unconsciousness, limited capacity).In some cases, if the patient's life threatens and if his personality can not be established, the doctor may not wait for the official consent.
Ideally, each patient should undergo a detailed medical examination to see if it is possible to perform the operation according to the available indications. In general, a standard commission survey is conducted. At the reception the patient declares the presence or absence of complaints about the state of health.
With additional health problems, additional examinations are scheduled. In some cases, a complete blood count and radiography will be sufficient. In others, you may need the results of additional tests, electrocardiography, ultrasound diagnosis, MRI, and specific tests.
Regardless of the quality of preoperative preparation, the patient is examined by an anesthesiologist before an intervention with general anesthesia. Additionally, the absence of contraindications associated with respiratory, cardiovascular, and psychiatric disorders is checked.
Any intervention in the activity of systems and organs of a living organism to a certain extent borders on the risk of irreversible consequences or critical violations of their functions. Modern diagnostics and methods of operation minimize them, but such variants must also be taken into account before deciding whether to perform an operation or to limit oneself to only conservative methods of treatment.
The principle of surgery - tissue separation - involves the presence of physiological and psychological trauma. It can be expressed more or less, but still a certain period for recovery is required. And although they try to follow the principle when determining the risks, so that the operation is not more dangerous than the consequences - sometimes you have to grab any opportunity to get rid of the ailment.
Types of intervention
Operation is understood to mean a complex medical effect on the patient's body( tissue and / or organs) in order to correct his morbid condition or additional diagnosis. In most cases, such intervention occurs after the opening of the external skin with a special tool. Recently, it has become possible to operate with the use of new high-tech equipment. Electrocoagulation, wave radio frequency exposure, laser radiation, cryosurgery, ultrasound can be used.
Simple operations are distinguished, which can be performed on the basis of outpatient departments, and complex, requiring a special room( operating unit).In different cases, the number of medical personnel will differ( surgeon, assistant, anesthesiologist, nurse, nurse).
How are dislocation surgery performed? In such cases, tissue separation is not necessary. Correction of the condition is carried out without the aid of a surgical instrument( manual manual).
How many operations do
Surgical intervention can last minutes or stretch for hours. It all depends on the type, purpose, complexity of the procedure. When you have to operate for several hours in a row, the surgeons' teams work in shifts so that the doctors can relax. In special cases, additional specialists from adjacent areas may be recruited if in the process of performing the basic procedure a highly specialized consultation is required.
Some operations are done under general anesthesia, others - under local anesthesia. If the impact is insignificant and transient( pulling out a loose tooth), it is possible to refuse anesthetic at all. The total duration of the intervention also depends on the time of the preparatory and final procedures. There are times when the main impact takes a minute, but it takes much longer to access the hearth.
Also, the duration can be affected by how the operations are done. The fundamental principle is that the cut is made as small as possible, but that it provides an operational space. If everything goes according to schedule - this is one thing, but often there are unforeseen situations, complications( bleeding, shock).There is a need to prolong the action of anesthesia or anesthesia to remove the patient from a critical condition, stopping the wound, completing the operation.
There are three main points in the course of surgical intervention. First, you need to expose the organ or hearth( provide access).This is followed by the main procedure associated with various kinds of manipulations with the instrument or equipment( operational reception).It can be different in complexity, nature, type and method of exposure. At the final stage( operative output), the integrity of damaged tissues is restored. The wound is sewn tight or a drainage hole is left.
The organization of the surgical operation begins with the installation of the prepared patient( sanitization) on the operating table. The expediency of location is determined by the surgeon, he also chooses the instrument, the variant of operative access, reception and exit. Depending on what operations are being performed, the procedure can be performed in any suitable position and not necessarily on the table. An anesthesiologist provides anesthesia, an assistant helps during the intervention, the operating sister is responsible for the instrument and materials, the nurse ensures the proper level of cleanliness.
On how operations are performed, primary and repeated( after complications) are distinguished among them. Surgical intervention can be radical, aimed at the complete elimination of the causes or consequences of pathologies, or palliative( partial solution of the problem).If it is impossible to solve the problem, intervention is made to alleviate the patient's condition( symptomatic intervention).
According to the deadline, they can be urgent( immediately when diagnosed according to the indications), urgent( during the first hours after entering the hospital), planned against the background of a normal general condition( without a specific period, according to the patient's readiness).Also, it is possible to identify interventions associated with violations in the integrity of tissues or organs( bloody), and bloodless( crushing stones);purulent( abscesses) and aseptic( pure).
The character of the localization is distinguished: cavitary( peritoneum, thorax, skull) and superficial( skin).And also: on soft tissues( muscles) and bone( amputations, resections).From the type of tissue, over which the operative reception is carried out: neurosurgical, ophthalmic, plastic and so on.
The name of the surgical operation is determined by the type of the organ to be treated and the surgical procedure. For example, appendectomy - removal of the appendix;thoracoplasty - elimination of defects and so on.
What to do after operation
Depending on the complexity of the intervention, the surgeon decides whether to further monitor the patient. With an easy degree, he can be released home or sent for observation by a district therapist. They can be transferred to a regular ward or intensive care unit, delivered to the intensive care unit. In any case, for a full recovery, a rehabilitation period is needed.
Depending on the complexity of the intervention, it can have various lengths and include a wide range of procedures: physiotherapy, massage, preventive physical training. This stage is aimed at restoring the tone of atrophied muscles after prolonged bed rest or, for example, to increase the motor activity of the damaged joint. In each specific case a certain task is posed, which can be achieved by various methods. The main goal - the restoration of the body's functions, providing a normal lifestyle.