Lung cancer squamous: description, causes, diagnosis and treatment characteristics
A terrible disease, such as cancer, has recently become quite common. Modern medicine is trying to find drugs that can prevent disease. But, unfortunately, so far, no one developed method does not provide a full one hundred percent guarantee of healing. Lung cancer is often squamous. According to statistics, such an oncology affects more men.
Description of the pathology of
Lung cancer is a very common, malignant tumor. The disease combines several forms of ailment.
The following types of pathology are distinguished:
- small cell;
- squamous cell carcinoma of the lung;
These ailments vary in structure, degree of spread, rate of progression. Of the above oncological diseases, in most cases, lung cancer is squamous. So doctors say. Pathology arises from flat cells of epithelial tissues.
The cause of the occurrence are carcinogens. These are environmental factors and other chemicals that penetrate the human body through the respiratory system. Therefore, in heavy smokers, residents of cities with a polluted atmosphere, people working in hazardous industries, the risk of disease is high.
How does malignant neoplasm develop? The superficial layer of cells of the cavity of the bronchi is densely covered with cilia. They help to get out phlegm while in motion. Destructive substances, getting into the respiratory system, contribute to the destruction of cilia. In their place, flat cells of epithelial tissue grow. Allocations can not be output. As a result, sputum stasis begins. In addition, mucus is also connected with harmful chemicals. This creates a favorable environment for the formation of neoplasms.
Causes and factors that provoke the disease
Let's take a closer look at why lung cancer is squamous.
The main reasons for the appearance of malignant neoplasms in the respiratory organs are:
- Permanent nonspecific diseases. Inflammatory processes in the bronchi are bronchitis. Diseases caused by microbacteria of tuberculosis. At the heart of the development of oncology can be frequent inflammation of the lungs.
- Genetic factor. An illness is considered hereditary if at least three people have been ill in the family.
- Age features. Usually, the pathology develops in people, after 60 years.
- Diseases of the endocrine system.
- Constant work in hazardous enterprises.
- Smoking. This habit of many people, is almost the main cause of lung cancer. The fact that a smoker is 30 times more likely to get sick than a person who rejects cigarettes is proved. When inhaled tobacco smoke on the mucous settles about 4 000 harmful substances. They are capable of killing healthy cells. Also harmful and passive smoking.
- Living on a site contaminated with radioactive substances.
Classification of the disease
To date, there are several different forms of malignant squamous cell lung neoplasm.
The following classification is common:
- Squamous keratinizing( differentiated) lung cancer. It is characterized by the formation of keratin cells. This condition is characterized by the formation of so-called oncological pearls. If the disease is diagnosed at the initial stages, it is well amenable to therapy. It should be noted that this is a rather dangerous form of the disease.
- Squamous nonkeratinized lung cancer( undifferentiated).This form is characterized by the presence of mitosis and cell polymorphism. Some of them may contain keratin. This type of disease is the most malignant form. It occurs in about 65% of cases. Suffer from this form, mostly men older than 40 years. For pathology is characterized by rapid development. Very quickly there are metastases. They penetrate into the lymph nodes of the root of the lungs, affect the bone tissue, liver and brain. In connection with such a rapid development very often in the diagnosis of the disease the patient already has metastases.
- Low-differentiated education. Malignant cells with such a variety are localized separately. This seriously complicates the examination. The risk of incorrect diagnosis is high. It is often assumed that adenocarcinoma develops. Metastases affect the liver, brain and adrenal glands. The confusion of the diagnosis gives a disappointing forecast. If a disease is found in the early stages, the therapy will provide a positive result.
Depending on the anatomical features distinguish:
- Central squamous cell lung cancer. This pathology is observed in almost 2/3 of the patients. It is characterized by the defeat of large bronchi. Sometimes it can even affect the trachea.
- Peripheral. It can be squamous cell carcinoma of the left lung or right. This type occurs in 3% of cases. Usually, such a disease occurs without symptoms. In light tissues there are no painful ends. As a result, the growth may not increase. Then it affects the bronchi and neighboring organs. There are bleeding. It should be noted that the right lung is more susceptible to the disease, due to its physiological characteristics.
Rarely, atypical forms of cancer are rare:
- is mediastinal.
Symptoms of the disease
Cancer of the lung squamous cell can take a long time without showing any signs. This greatly complicates the timely diagnosis.
This ailment is characterized by such symptoms:
- Dry, often passed into a wet, prolonged cough. In the future, there may be spotting. They indicate that the tumor is irritated by the endings of the bronchus. Coughing up sputum is accompanied by an unpleasant smell and impurities of pus.
- The appearance of frequent pneumonia and pleurisy.
- When affected by the disease of the larynx, hoarseness and hoarseness appear. Sometimes the voice disappears altogether. This symptom is characterized by a squamous squamous cell.
- Feeling of air shortage. Develops atelectasis. There is shortness of breath as a result of impaired lung ventilation.
- Fatigue, decreased efficiency.
- Fingers become irregular in shape.
- Weight reduction.
- Frequent and strong, giving to the heart, hands, back, pain. The symptom is characteristic in the late stages of the disease.
Stages of pathology
The progression of the disease is subdivided by the degree of progression.
There are such pathologies as squamous cell lung cancer, 4 stages:
- The tumor size is no more than 3 cm. There are no metastases.
- The size of the formation is more than 3 cm. The tumor can sprout into the pleura. A certainhectasis of a certain proportion is observed.
- Neoplasms cover adjacent tissues. Atelectasis extends to the entire lung. Metastases affect the lymph nodes.
- The tumor grows into the neighboring large organs( heart, vessels).
Diagnosis of the disease
It is difficult to detect squamous cell lung cancer. After all, this pathology has a similar symptom with many diseases of the respiratory system, such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, abscesses. This is the main reason that the disease is detected only in the last stages.
When suspected of the disease, the patient is sent for such examinations:
- layered X-ray tomography;
- markers of type CYFRA, SSC;
- thoracoscopy( at which a biopsy is taken).
Diagnosis of the disease requires a systematic approach. A malignant tumor can disguise itself for other diseases.
disease Therapy of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is performed by several methods:
Of course, only a doctor can correctly choose the necessary tactics to combat oncology. For each case, an individual therapy regimen is prescribed.
The best results are given by treatment, in which the above methods combine.
Instrumental or surgical intervention is the most reliable and basic method of treatment. Excellent results are provided by the surgical method if it is taken at the 1 stage of progression.
However, the operation has a number of contraindications to the conduct:
- formation affects the throat,
- in renal and hepatic insufficiency,
- after a previous myocardial infarction.
Treatment of squamous cell lung cancer with the help of modern medications increases the chance of recovery by 4 times.
But, unfortunately, not all cancer cells have sensitivity to antitumor drugs.
The method of treatment with ionizing radiation. Radiation therapy is indicated for patients who can not undergo surgery.
This method of treatment is usually carried out at stages 3-4 of the disease. Only 40% of patients can prevent further development of the neoplasm. For the best effect, the radiation method is used in combination with chemotherapy.
What to expect for a patient with diagnosed squamous cell lung cancer?
The prognosis depends on a number of factors, among which:
- the progression stage;
- individual features of the body;
- professionalism of doctors;
- pharmacological support.
If the tumor is detected in 1 or 2 stages, there are no metastases, or there are isolated cases in the lymph nodes, and the neoplasm itself does not exceed 3-5 cm, the predictions are quite different. Survival of such patients is 80%.
A much worse prognosis for patients in whom stage 3 is identified. The survival rate is reduced to 25%.
At 4 stages of progression, the prognosis is quite disappointing. However, with the help of palliative therapy, the patient's quality of life can be significantly improved.