"Artikain": instructions for use and analogues
How should I use and under what conditions can not I prescribe the drug "Articaine"?Instructions for use and contraindications for this drug will be discussed further. Also in this article you will find information about the side effects of this drug, its analogs and therapeutic features.
Produced form of medicament, its composition, description and packaging
What is the medication "Articaine"?Instructions for use, reviews report that this is an injectable clear solution, which can be colorless, and can have a slightly yellowish tinge.
The active ingredient of this product is articaine hydrochloride. Also in the composition of the drug solution are such auxiliary components as water d / and sodium chloride.
This medicine is sold in cartridges, which are packaged in contour plastic cells and packs of paper, respectively. You can also buy an injection solution in ampoules made of glass.
Therapeutic features of the drug
What is remarkable about the drug "Articaine"?Instructions for use, the description claims that this agent is a thiophene derivative. It exhibits local anesthetic properties and is actively used for anesthesia( infiltration and conduction).
In the weakly alkaline environment of tissues, the active component of this preparation undergoes hydrolysis. In this case, a base is released that exhibits lipophilic properties. Due to this effect, articaine quite easily penetrates through the cellular membranes into the nerve fibers.
By acting on receptors, the drug in question blocks not only the process of delivery of Na ions to cells, but also prevents the impulse along the nerves.
According to reports of dentists, the action of the drug "Articaine", the instruction for which is described below, is observed almost immediately after its introduction. As to the effectiveness of this drug, it is observed for three hours and decreases only in an acidic environment.
Kinetic features of the injection solution
How does the absorption of the drug "Articaine" occur? Instructions for use asserts that when administered intramuscularly, the peak concentration of this agent in the blood is reached after 25-35 minutes.
When administering a drug under the mouth mucosa, it exhibits an increased diffusion capacity.
With plasma proteins, this drug binds about 95%.It is metabolized in the liver and excreted by the kidneys for six hours( the half-life of the anesthetic is about 65-80 minutes).
It should also be said that the agent under consideration is able to penetrate through the placental( in less quantity than local anesthetics), and also through the blood-brain barrier( in an insignificant amount).With regard to mother's milk, with it, articaine is practically not excreted.
Indications for prescribing
What is the purpose of the drug "Articaine"?Instructions for use indicate that this tool is very often used in dental practice for the purpose of anesthesia( infiltration and wiring).
Prohibitions on the use of
When is it forbidden to use articaine? The instruction for use states that preparations based on this component are contraindicated in:
- chronic hypoxia;
- high sensitivity to articaine, as well as to other local anesthetics belonging to the group of amides;
- for any CNS diseases;
- megaloblastic B12-deficient anemia;
- asthma is bronchial;
- closed angle glaucoma;
- paroxysmal tachycardia;
- of acute heart failure;
- of atrial tachyarrhythmia;
- severe cardiac conduction abnormalities( eg, with severe bradycardia, atrioventricular block II-III degree);
- of bulk maxillofacial operations, as well as with long-term surgery( longer than 20 minutes);
- hypotension arterial;
- in children under four years of age( safety and efficacy not studied).
It should also be noted that with special care this drug is prescribed for pregnant women with preeclampsia, as well as bleeding in the last trimester.
Preparation "Articaine": instruction for use in dentistry
Before the introduction of the drug in question, an aspirating test should always be performed. This is necessary in order to minimize the likelihood of intravascular drug administration.
According to experts, during the introduction of the drug in question, the pressure on the syringe plunger must be adjusted depending on the sensitivity of the tissues. In this case, administer the drug to the inflamed parts of the oral mucosa is highly discouraged. Take food after the injection procedure is allowed only after the full recovery of sensitivity.
In the process of uncomplicated removal of the tooth located on the upper jaw( if there is no inflammation), use 1.7 ml of the solution( per tooth).If required, the patient is additionally given 1-1.7 ml of the drug.
For anesthesia during the application of seams and palatine incisions, 0.1 ml of the agent is assigned to the patient to create a palatine depot.
When removing premolars located on the lower jaw( with uncomplicated degree), infiltration anesthesia is performed. In this case, it gives the effect of conductive analgesia.
When the teeth are sharpened for the crown( except molars of the lower jaw) and the preparation of the cavities, vestibular injection is carried out at a dosage of 0.5-1.7 ml per tooth.
With a single administration of the drug, its maximum dosage for adults is 4 mg / kg body weight.
Side effects of
How is the drug Articaine tolerated by patients? Instructions for use( side effects of this medication will be presented right now) argue that this drug very rarely causes negative effects. Among them can be identified such as:
- stupor, dizziness, respiratory disorders, transient visual disorders, tremor, muscle twitches, blurred vision( temporary);
- generalized seizures, paresthesia, lowering blood pressure, hypoesthesia, blindness, heart failure, double vision, shock;
- allergic reactions, nausea, angioedema, vomiting, swelling, flushing of the skin, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth, conjunctivitis, hives, rhinitis;
- swelling of the cheeks, upper or lower lips, swelling of the vocal cords with difficulty swallowing.
It should also be noted that sometimes with incorrect injection of local anesthetic, damage to the facial nerve is possible. This can lead to the development of paralysis.
What are the signs of an overdose when the "Articaine" medication is misused? Instructions for use indicate the following symptoms: loss of consciousness, dizziness, lower blood pressure, stupor during injection or motor excitement, bradycardia.
To eliminate such conditions, it is necessary to immediately stop the injection and put the patient on the bed. He also needs to provide free patency of the respiratory tract, monitor cardiac contractions and the state of blood pressure.
Drug Interaction of
Local anesthetics can enhance the action of medications that depress CNS.
In parallel with the described drug, the following interaction is observed:
- with anticoagulants increases the risk of bleeding and hemorrhage;
- with monoamine oxidase inhibitors increases the risk of developing arterial hypotension;
- the effect of muscle relaxants is enhanced and lengthened;
- with vasoconstrictive agents intensifies and lengthens the local anesthetic effect of articaine;
- with narcotic analgesics intensifies respiratory depression and develops an additive effect;
- with cholinesterase inhibitors decreases the metabolism of articaine.
It should also be noted that the drug in question exhibits antagonism with antimiasthenic drugs. In addition, when treating the injection site with disinfectant solutions that contain heavy metals, the risk of an adverse reaction in the form of edema and painful sensitivity increases.
The agent should not be administered intravenously. It is also forbidden to inject into an inflamed area.
You can not reuse an open cartridge from a solution, including for other patients.
In the course of treatment, "Artikain" needs to monitor the functions of the respiratory, cardiac, central nervous and vascular systems.
How can I replace the local anesthetic "Articaine"?Its analogues are the following drugs: "Mepivacaine", "Lidocaine", "Bupivacaine", "Ultrakain", "Markain" and others.
Now you know what the medicine "Artikain" is for. Instructions for use, analogs of this anesthetic are also discussed in this article.
According to the experts, this drug is very often used in dental practice. If you follow all the recommendations of the doctor and take into account all the contraindications to the use of this medication, then the drug shows high efficiency and very rarely promotes the development of adverse reactions.