Xanthoma of the stomach: a description, causes, symptoms and features of treatment
Often when performing gastroscopy, doctors identify small plaques on the gastric mucosa. They are called xanthomas. Such entities attract attention of scientists from all over the world, since the exact mechanism of their formation is not defined.
Xanthoma of the stomach - what is it?
Treatment of any disease can not be imagined without studying its pathogenesis. Xanthoma is a neoplasm of benign nature that arises from the violation of cholesterol metabolism. According to the histological structure, this is a cluster of macrophages. In the process of pathological changes, they capture lipoid particles and are transformed into xantomal elements that form tumors. On the gastric mucosa the neoplasms look like deposits of a yellowish color with clear boundaries. Their size can vary from 5 to 15 mm.
The xanthoma of the stomach is a small rounded formation that slightly rises above the surface of the organ. According to its histological structure, it resembles an atherosclerotic plaque. Microscopically, education consists of many elements, fatty inclusions are clearly visible in their cytoplasm. They fill almost the entire cell space, pushing the core and organelles to the periphery. Benign education can be in the singular, but more often there are groups of plaques scattered throughout all parts of the stomach. In this case we are talking about a disease called xanthomatosis. Among the most common areas of localization, where one can detect pathology, doctors distinguish the following:
- antral department;
- small curvature;
- lower body.
The greatest danger is the xanthoma of the antral part of the stomach. Treatment of pathology is not complete without prior biopsies. It should be noted that the disease has a tendency to relapse. If the patient returns to an incorrect lifestyle and neglects maintenance therapy, there is a possibility of a second diagnosis of plaques in the stomach during endoscopy.
The main causes of the pathology
Where does the xanthoma of the stomach come from? Whether this violation is dangerous, it is difficult to judge. If timely measures are taken to eliminate it, it is possible to prevent the development of complications. Physicians call several reasons for the emergence of this pathology. It is often impossible to identify one particular of the extensive list, which determines its multifactority. A definite role in the appearance of xanthom is assigned to hereditary predisposition and changes in the lipid profile.
The leading cause, according to most experts, is a metabolic disorder in the body. In particular, we are talking about problems at the level of lipids and triglycerides. The area of the stomach lining the prismatic epithelium, represented by a variety of glandular cells. As a result of disturbances in metabolic processes, lipids begin to be deposited in its cells, gradually filling up their cytoplasmic space. This mechanism is not fully understood and is a kind of assumption. In general, the process of deposition of fatty inclusions in the epithelium of the stomach is similar to that of atherosclerosis. Therefore, these two pathologies share several features.
Symptoms and first signs of
Neoplasms of a benign character for a long time do not make themselves felt. This greatly complicates the diagnosis of pathology at an early stage. Usually, the xanthoma of the stomach is detected by chance, when the patient comes up with complaints of gastritis or bulbitis. To its most typical symptoms include a feeling of heaviness in the stomach, vomiting, a change in the consistency of stool. The main signs of pathology are often masked by background diseases.
As for the diagnosis of pathology, many doctors do not give it the proper value. Plaques can remain undetected for a long time due to the zaphenivaniya stomach. To quickly clean it, patients are offered special preparations, after the onset of which they start endoscopic examination. Xanthoma of the stomach - this is a small neoplasm, but to neglect the diagnosis is still not worth it. In detecting even microscopic plaques, doctors must definitely record this fact in endoscopic protocols. Timely detection of neoplasms allows them to be completely cured, as well as prevent transformation into cancerous elements.
After obtaining the results of endoscopic examination, the xanthoma tissues are sent to a laboratory where the qualitative composition of the material is studied. It is important to differentiate benign neoplasm from malignant tumors. After receiving a complete picture of the pathology, therapy is prescribed.
Medical treatment of xanthoma of stomach
Therapy with the help of drugs has two goals: elimination of accumulation of cholesterol, correction of lipid metabolism. To perform such tasks, patients are prescribed various medications. For example, if cholesterol is significantly exceeded, statins are prescribed. The most effective medicines of this pharmacological group are "Atomax", "Liptonorm", "Roxera", "Cardiostatin".They reduce the secretion of enzymes responsible for the formation of cholesterol. These drugs have side effects, so their use is only possible according to the doctor's prescription. The competition for synthesized statins is made up of medicines made from natural components. Especially it is necessary to allocate "Polikanazol", obtained from sugar cane. He has virtually no side effects.
Lipid exchange can not be corrected without bile acid sequestrants. Among them, increased tolerance "Lovastatin".Fibrin acid derivatives( Fenofibrate, Gemfibrozil) are often prescribed. In the treatment of the xanthoma of the stomach, antioxidants are actively used in combination with vitamins E and group B.
If the patient has a lipid profile, additional consultation with an endocrinologist is considered advisable. Most likely, you will need an examination of the arteries, the aorta. These measures do not relate to direct treatment of xanthoma, but allow to diagnose other diseases that negatively affect the quality of life.
Folk methods of therapy
Nature is rich in absolutely harmless statins, which in practice are used to correct the content of cholesterol in the blood. According to experts, their use is justified when treating the xanthoma of the antral part of the stomach or its body. Particularly popular are the following products:
- Fish oil is considered an excellent regulator of lipid metabolism. A similar effect is possessed by flaxseed oil.
- Vitamins. All known ascorbic acid( its source - citrus) inhibits the production of lipoproteins. Vitamin B3 is a natural statin and is found in large quantities in green vegetables and cereals.
- Garlic is an effective regulator of cholesterol.
Products with resveratrol( dark grapes, cocoa) are no less useful. As another excellent folk remedy, experts recommend preparing a decoction. It will require 200 g of dog rose and 5 tablespoons of chopped pine needles. Ingredients are poured into 1.5 liters of water and cook for about 20 minutes. The resulting broth is recommended to be consumed twice a day for 100 ml. Especially it is advised to patients with the diagnosis of "xanthoma of the angle of the stomach."
Given the importance of lowering blood cholesterol levels, treatment of pathology is impossible without adjusting nutrition. From the diet should be completely eliminated all fatty foods, including sour cream and cream. Alcoholic drinks are also prohibited. On the contrary, it is recommended to increase the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, walnuts. Gradually, you can supplement the diet with porridges on the water, lean meat and fish. The exchange of lipids is positively affected by soy products. Therapeutic diet is recommended to be observed for 30 days and under the constant supervision of a doctor. Neglect of such rules is dangerous relapse, including after the course of therapy.
Prevention measures for
Xanthoma of the body of the stomach or its antral part is a serious pathology that requires long-term treatment. Is it possible to prevent its occurrence? Considering the recommended methods of prevention, it is necessary to address the questions of etiology. Xanthoma is developed due to diabetes, metabolic disorders or endocrine diseases. Therefore, to avoid its appearance, it is necessary to periodically undergo a complete examination, and if there are violations, do not engage in self-medication. Timely therapy of diseases is the basis of prevention of xanthomas.
On the other hand, a certain role in the development of pathology belongs to malnutrition and bad habits. Therefore, doctors advise to refuse from drinking alcohol, smoking, adhere to a healthy lifestyle and engage in affordable sports. Balanced nutrition is another option for xanthoma prevention. From the diet should be excluded fat and fried foods, smoked products, convenience foods, fast food. The ban also includes all products that contribute to the onset of atherosclerosis.
Let's sum up
The xanthoma of the stomach is a small plaque localized on the mucous organ. This phenomenon still causes many disputes among doctors, since the exact mechanism of its occurrence is not defined. Opinions are expressed about the relationship with atherosclerotic plaques and even with cancer. Xanthoma treatment is a long and complex process that requires the use of serious medications.