Russian doctor Sklifosovsky Nikolai Vasilievich: biography, family, contribution to medicine, memory. Military field surgery
This person made a huge contribution to the development of medicine, developed methods of treatment and diagnosis, a generation of fine doctors who have continued to develop his ideas. Now the name Sklifosovsky( doctor, scientist, leader) has become a household name. There are even sarcastic ways of using it, and this is already a sign of national recognition.
Doctor of Medicine Nikolai Sklifosovsky in the nineteenth century was a representative of the medical elite of the Russian Empire in the world community. His textbooks, scientific works, patents for inventions enjoyed great popularity both at home and abroad. Studying the history of medicine, it is important to know the biography of the pillars of medical science, as their experience helps to educate new generations of the followers of Asklepia.
The era in which Nikolai Vasilievich had to live and work was rich in events. The kings introduced amendments to the laws, the country fevered from constant reforms and changes. Not everyone agreed with them, even if in the long run everything should have been the best way.
Sklifosovsky's active work coincided with the abolition of serfdom, the Stolypin reforms, the emergence of the ideas of Marxism and socialism, and, of course, the ever increasing development of capitalist relationships in the Russian Empire.
Unfortunately, all the changes that have been made have not been supported by the general public and have been perceived by them with hostility. In addition, for this period a large number of military personnel are ravaged, devastating the country. The tsarist government did not want to change with the people, which made it unpopular and brought the coup time closer.
Childhood and adolescence
Nikolai Vasilyevich Sklifosovsky was born in a small farm located near the town of Dubossary, located in the Kherson province. This event occurred on March 25( or April 6 in the old style) in 1836.The father of the future doctor was an impoverished nobleman, Vasily Pavlovich Sklifosovsky, who worked as a co-ordinator of the Dubossary quarantine service. If you now ask to show on the map where Sklifosovsky was born, then no one can do it, as the farm was absorbed by a rapidly growing city and lost among its districts.
His family had many children - only twelve children, so they brought him up to the orphanage for education. Contain so many offspring was hard for parents, so older children were sent to study in boarding schools, where the state put them on, fed and provided housing. The boy learned early what loneliness and orphanhood are. The only joy was the desire for knowledge, especially for natural sciences, history, literature and foreign languages. Soon he set himself the goal of getting out of poverty, and for this it was necessary to study even more diligently.
After graduating from the gym Sklifosovsky goes to Moscow and enters the Moscow University at the newly opened medical faculty. It is in the walls of his alma mater, he realizes that he wants to devote all his life to surgery. After the final examinations, the young doctor returns home and starts working in the Zemstvo hospital. But this does not satisfy him. And after a few years he decides to move to Odessa, where Nikolai Vasilyevich is offered to manage a surgical department in the city hospital.
All his free time Sklifosovsky devoted to science and surgical skills training. Such persistence helped him in just three years to defend his doctoral thesis on the topic of operating oncological patients.
Three years later, in 1866, at the age of thirty, a young scientist, a successful doctor Sklifosovsky, left for a long overseas business trip. During this time, he manages to work in several European countries - Germany, England and France. There he meets with other surgical schools, studies new ways of treatment and organization of medical care, adopts the experience of senior colleagues in the shop.
His journey began with the pathological institute of Virchow and the clinic of Professor Langenbeck, which are located in Germany. He was involved there as a military doctor, worked in the infirmary and at the dressing stations. Then he went to France, where he studied with Professor Klomart and interned at the clinic of Nelaton. A business trip was completed in the UK, with Professor Simpson.
In the course of his training Sklifosovsky draws attention to new ways of processing the surgeon's tools and to sterilizing the operating field, which were not previously performed in Russia. At that time, doctors were of the opinion that disinfecting themselves and everything around before the operation is not only not necessary, but even harmful. At that time, Lister's works were too revolutionary, and not every medical man was ready to take them into service.
Work in the capital
Doctor Sklifosovsky returns to his homeland in 1868, inspired and overwhelmed by new progressive ideas. He publishes a series of articles and textbooks devoted to the knowledge that was obtained in Europe. This is bearing fruit. In 1870 Nikolai Vasilyevich was invited to work at the Department of Surgery at Kiev University.
But on this his scientific activity does not stop. He continues to make reports, drawing attention to his revolutionary ideas and trying to integrate them into Russian reality. His method of decontaminating medical equipment outstripped his time and was considered one of the first in the empire.
At this point, the Austro-Prussian War begins, and Sklifosovsky volunteers to the front as a field doctor. After the truce, he returns to Odessa, but he does not manage to live there. After a short time, the conflict between France and Germany flares up, and the professor again goes to the front. And again he returns, but not home, but to Petersburg, to teach at the Medical-Surgical Academy and train young military doctors.
The period of calm lasts only five years. Then Professor Sklifosovsky again goes first to the Balkan, and then to the Russian-Turkish war, where he meets with Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov. But, in addition to the work of an ordinary surgeon, Nikolai Vasilyevich had to carry out administrative work as a consultant to the Red Cross. Sometimes he could not rest for several days in a row to help everyone who needed it.
Nikolai Vasilyevich Sklifosovsky, after signing the peace, returns to Moscow. There he is offered the position of the head of the surgical clinic to be combined with teaching at the university. It was a bold decision, as the hospital, which he had to deal with, was in very poor condition.
Fortunately, any case, for which the professor undertook, flourished under his leadership. Therefore, the clinic soon became one of the best in the country, and then in Europe. He installed in her autoclaves and dry-fire cabinets for processing instruments and linen surgeons. This allowed to minimize the complications after the operation and blood infection, which in those days were not uncommon. Severe diseases, such as sepsis, were defeated by the efforts of Sklifosovsky.
He always tried to bring in his work a creative thread, develop himself and pass on knowledge to his students, if they have such a desire.
The last years of his life
Biography Sklifosovsky abounds in interesting events, but the last years of his life were quite gloomy. Because of the stroke, he had to leave his post as a professor at the university, transfer the clinic to the care of the receiver and retire to his estate near Poltava. There he underwent rehabilitation, restored motor skills, and subsequently began to engage in gardening.
Unfortunately, the light span was short-lived, and soon Nikolai Vasilyevich died. It happened on November 30( or December 13 in the old style) of 1904.He was buried in the village of Yakovtsy, near the place where the battle with the Swedes took place in 1709.
Contribution to science and medicine
It's hard to imagine how many useful innovations have appeared in Russian medicine thanks to Sklifosovsky. His biography abounds with adventures of varying degrees of danger: here and internships abroad, and participation in all European wars of that time, and life in several cities of the empire. All this amazing experience, he tried to analyze and turn in favor of his patients and colleagues.
The method of sterilization of Lister, which Sklifosovsky brought from the trip, divided the surgery into two large periods: before and after applying knowledge about aseptic and antiseptic. Prior to this, patients died from various septic complications: phlegmon, gangrene, sepsis and others, but with the introduction of the idea that the instruments and hands of the doctor should be clean, the number of deaths significantly decreased.
Thanks to the development of military field surgery, a wide range of medical interventions has expanded, since general anesthesia has been introduced into ordinary practice. This allowed to increase the duration of operations and improve the technique of their conduct. Sklifosovsky was the first to perform a laparotomy( opening of the abdominal cavity) with a therapeutic purpose, and the patient remained alive. For the level of medicine of that time - it was a great risk and great success.
Modesty of the doctor and curiosities
Despite all the achievements of Nikolai Sklifosovsky, when he was a green freshman student, he fainted at the very first operation, as far as he was struck by the sight of blood. But this did not stop the young man. He was able to overcome his fear and by the end of his studies he was considered one of the outstanding students. He was asked to pass an examination for a doctorate.
The second case of loss of consciousness is also associated with surgery, but the reason for it is already diametrically opposed. A diligent student spent so much time on anatomy in unventilated sectional that one day he was found in deep fainting right next to the corpse.
The modesty with which Sklifosovsky lived and worked is also surprising. Immediately after graduation, he was offered the place of the chief doctor of the city hospital in Odessa, but refused, arguing that he wants to gain more experience, and left to work as a zemstvo doctor and then as a simple resident in this very hospital.
After a quarter of a century of his professional career, Nikolai Vasilyevich will not celebrate the anniversary, he will ask not to congratulate him on this date. But grateful patients, students and colleagues from different countries all the same sent him hundreds of letters and telegrams.
Doctor of all wars of his time
Pirogov and Sklifosovsky( who can be considered a pupil and receivers of Nikolai Ivanovich) have significantly developed military field surgery. This was because the young doctor was not indifferent to the fate of people involved in the theater of operations. And it did not matter to him whether they were his compatriots or not.
As a volunteer, he went to the front in 1866, 1870, 1876 and 1877.Four different wars gave Sklifosovsky an invaluable experience, which he was able to apply not only in practice, but also to educate the generation of military doctors due to the opportunity to teach at the medical academy in St. Petersburg.
In addition, after work as a field surgeon, Nikolai Vasilievich invented a new way of connecting damaged joints, called the "Russian lock".
Jealousy of colleagues in the shop
As it often happens, having made a huge contribution to medicine, Sklifosovsky Nikolai Vasilievich acquired not only admirers and grateful patients, but also envious persons. His career developed rapidly, he was in the forefront of science and tried to fight for people and the homeland more than for himself. But even such disinterestedness does not always receive a response in the hearts of people.
On the path of a young and talented doctor, there were constant obstacles that history is silent about. The scientific community of that time did not really like Sklifosovsky and did not want to take him into his ranks. When, after returning from the front, he began to manage a clinic in St. Petersburg, many saw him as his rival. Getting a good place at such a young age was then considered a bad form, and even to have a scientific degree - and even more so.
Adherents of the old school actively denied Sklifosovsky's innovative ideas, criticized his methods and bantered over him. A well-known surgeon of that time, Ippolit Korzhenevsky, in his lectures with irony, spoke about Lister's method and claimed that they were ridiculously afraid of creatures that a person can not see.
Death as the eternal companion of his
There were interesting facts in the life of Sklifosovsky Nikolai Vasilyevich, not related to his professional activities. As a doctor, he saved thousands of deaths from death, but she still followed him on the heels. Not in the hospital, but at home. It was necessary for a young doctor to marry, as a newly married wife suddenly leaves this world, leaving three young children in his care. In order to give them a full-fledged family, Nikolai Vasilievich got married again.
From the second marriage in the family Sklifosovsky, four more children appear, but three sons also die early: Boris in his earliest infancy, Constantine at 17 years old( from kidney tuberculosis), and the death of senior Vladimir is connected with politics. Even in his student years, the young man began to get carried away with revolutionary ideas, so he joined an underground organization that was engaged in subversive activities. Wanting to test a new member of the team, he was given the task of killing the governor of Poltava, a close friend of the Sklifosovsky family. But the boy could not decide on such an act, so he decided to die without waiting for a comradely court.
This is what caused the stroke of Nikolai Vasilyevich. After the tragedy, he lived for several years a recluse on his estate and soon died too. Unfortunately, his other two sons were killed in the ensuing war, and after the Bolsheviks came to power, the professor's wife and daughter were shot as "members of the general's family", although the government ordered the family of Sklifosovsky not to be touched.
The last surviving daughter Olga immediately emigrated from Russia immediately after the appearance of the Soviet Union and did not return to her homeland.
Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care in Moscow
"Sklif", as its good-natured doctors call it, is the largest center of emergency medical care in Russia today. It was founded in 1923 on the basis of a home for disabled and elderly people. The almshouse was built on the initiative of Count Sheremetyev and was called the Hospice house.
After the October Revolution, the hospital is suspended to open in 1919 as a city emergency station. Four years after the reorganization, it was decided to open the Institute of Emergency Care and give it the name of Professor Sklifosovsky.
During the Great Patriotic War, Sklif worked as a military hospital, took heavy wounded from all fronts, and also engaged in scientific activities.
For 2017 in the Research Institute of JV.NV Sklifosovsky has more than forty clinical units, 800 doctors and scientists work here. Every year more than seven thousand patients from all regions of the country are being treated.