Conditionally pathogenic microflora. The most known conditionally pathogenic microorganisms
Most of the living matter of the Earth is represented by microbes. At the moment this fact is established accurately. Completely a person can not be isolated from them, and they have the opportunity to live in it or on it without causing harm.
On the surface of the human body, on the inner shells of its hollow organs is placed a whole crowd of microorganisms of various colors and kinds. Among them, there are optional( they can both be present and not) and obligate( there are necessarily every person).What is a conditionally pathogenic microflora?
The evolution process influenced the body's relationship with the microbes present in it and led to a dynamic equilibrium controlled by the human immune system and some competition of various microbial species, which is considered the norm.
However, this microbial community also contains those that can cause a disease in conditions that are often independent of themselves. This is a conditionally pathogenic microflora. These microorganisms are quite a large number, for example, they include some species of clostridia, staphylococcus and escherichia.
The person and the bacteria living in his body have quite a variety of relationships. Most of the microbiocenosis( microflora) is represented by microorganisms coexisting with a person in symbiosis. In other words, we can say that the relationship with it is of benefit to them( protection from ultraviolet radiation, nutrients, constant humidity and temperature, etc.).At the same time, bacteria also bring the organism of the wearer a benefit in the form of rivalry with pathogens microorganisms and their survival from the territory of their existence, in the form of protein splitting and the synthesis of vitamins. At one time with the bacteria useful for the person there are cohabitants that do not cause much harm in small quantities, but become disease-prone under certain circumstances. These are conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.
Probably pathogenic are microorganisms, which are a large group of fungi, bacteria, protozoa and viruses that live with a person in symbiosis, but which, under certain conditions, cause a variety of pathological processes. To the list of the most widespread and known can be attributed representatives of the genera: aspergillus, proteus, candida, enterobacter, pseudomonas, streptococcus, escherichia and many others.
What else is interesting about the opportunistic microflora?
Scientists can not clearly distinguish between conditionally pathogenic, pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes, since their pathogenicity in most cases determines the state of the organism. Thus, it can be said that the microflora that was revealed during the study in an absolutely healthy person, can cause another disease in the other with a subsequent fatal outcome.
The manifestation of pathogenic properties in conditionally pathogenic microorganisms can be only during a sharp decrease in the resistance of the organism. A healthy person constantly has these microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract, on the skin and mucous membranes, but they do not cause him to develop pathological changes and inflammatory reactions.
Conditionally pathogenic microflora for the time being is not dangerous for humans. But there are nuances.
Therefore, conditionally pathogenic microbes are called opportunists, because they use any favorable opportunity for intensive reproduction.
When should this infection be feared?
The occurrence of problems, however, can be said in the case when, for some reason, the immunity is greatly reduced, and this was found during the examination. The conditionally pathogenic microflora is then really dangerous to health.
This is possible in some situations: in case of severe respiratory viral infection, acquired or congenital immunodeficiency( HIV infection, including), in diseases that reduce immunity( cardiovascular and blood diseases, diabetes, malignant tumors and others), admissiondrugs that depress the immune system( chemotherapy for cancer, corticosteroids, cytostatics and others), with hypothermia, severe stress, extreme physical exertion or other extreme influenceskg Ambient, during lactation or pregnancy. Each such factor alone and in the aggregate of several of them is especially capable of causing conditional-pathogenic bacteria to develop a sufficiently serious infection and become a threat to human health. When is it necessary to sow on the microflora?
In doctoral practice, the following situations are often encountered: when a positive test is obtained for a Staphylococcus aureus from the nose, throat, breast milk or skin surface, an absolutely healthy person can get too excited and require specialist treatment, including antibiotics. This concern can be easily explained, but often it is groundless, since almost half of the people around the world have Staphylococcus aureus and do not even suspect it. This microorganism is the inhabitant of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract and skin. This is typical for such a category as conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.
It is also the possessor of phenomenal resistance to various environmental factors: exposure to a variety of antibiotics, treatment with antiseptics, cooling and boiling. This reason affects what you can not almost get rid of. All household appliances, surfaces in the house, toys and furniture are seeded by it. And only the ability of skin immunity to weaken the activity of this microorganism saves a large part of people from death due to infectious complications. Otherwise, the growth of opportunistic microflora, and in particular of staphylococcus, would not be stopped.
It can be concluded that the only factor with which Staphylococcus aureus can not cope is human immunity. The high-risk category occurs when a person's protection is weakened. In this case, it can cause serious illnesses, such as pneumonia, meningitis, as well as infectious lesions of soft tissues and skin( phlegmon, abscess, panaritium and others), cystitis, pyelonephritis and others. The only possible treatment for staphylococcus is the use of antibiotics, to which this microorganism is sensitive. What is the conditionally pathogenic intestinal microflora?
E. coli is considered a natural inhabitant in the lower part of the digestive tract in every person. Without it, the intestine could not function fully, because it is very important for the digestive process. Including this microorganism contributes to the production of vitamin K, involved in the process of blood-clotting, and prevents the too active development of disease-causing pathogenic strains of intestinal bacteria.
Intestinal bacillus can not exist for a long time outside the carrier's body, since the conditions for finding the intestinal mucosa on the surface are most comfortable for it. But this very useful and harmless bacterium can also serve as a source of real danger when it enters the abdominal cavity or lumen of other organs. This becomes possible when entering intestinal flora in the urinary tract, the vagina or with peritonitis( the appearance of a hole that serves as an outlet for the contents of the intestine).Such a mechanism leads to the appearance of prostatitis, vulvovaginitis, cystitis, urethritis and other diseases. Need regular seeding on the microflora.
Greasing streptococcus also refers to bacteria of a conditionally pathogenic nature, as it is found in most people. His favorite localization is the oral cavity, or rather the mucous membrane that covers the gums, and tooth enamel. Including this microbe is found in smears from the nose and throat. The peculiarities of the greening streptococcus is that in saliva with an elevated glucose content it is capable of destroying the tooth enamel, thus causing pulpitis or caries. A smear on conditionally pathogenic microflora is conducted by a doctor.
It can be said that moderate consumption of sweet and simple oral hygiene after eating is the best prevention of these diseases. In addition, sometimes greening streptococcus causes the manifestation of other ailments: tonsillitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis. The most serious diseases that can cause a green streptococcus are meningitis, pneumonia, endocarditis and pyelonephritis. However, they develop only in a very small category of people, which can be attributed to a group of high risk.
And if bakposev - normal, and conditionally pathogenic microflora is not found? This situation happens quite often. This means a variant of the norm.
The only correct method of therapy for E. coli, green streptococcus and staphylococcus is the use of antibiotics. But it must be accompanied by certain indications, to which carriage does not apply, if it is asymptomatic.