Allergy to tomatoes: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
One of the most common diseases on the Earth is an allergy on the skin: the stains are itchy, inflamed and swollen. Many people experience discomfort, burning and tearing of the eyes, perspiration in the nose and nasopharynx, attacks of nausea and dizziness, stomach cramps, swelling, irritability. The reasons for this reaction can be very different, but the main ones are: pollen of plants, dust, citrus or animal hair. Nevertheless, various eruptions and redness can occur due to reaction to other substances that seem at first sight quite harmless. These can be synthetic threads in clothing, sun, cold or food such as fish, honey or dairy products. Often the reaction occurs even for tomatoes. Allergy is an individual disease, therefore for each person there can be an allergen, and as a result, everyone will have their own symptoms. So what kind of affliction is that, which affects millions of people around the world? Let's try to understand what kind of illness it is and why it arises.
What is an allergy?
An allergic reaction of the body can arise as a response of the immune system to the action of any irritant( allergen).However, we are constantly working hundreds of all sorts of factors, but the body does not react to them. They do not do any harm to their health, so our body simply ignores them. Symptoms of allergy are manifested when the immune system perceives one of them as a threat and begins to defend against it. Sometimes the defensive reaction of our body can be so strong that our own organs and tissues suffer.
Most people suffering from tomato allergy experience unpleasant symptoms after eating them. Therefore, most often such manifestations of hypersensitivity are classified as a food allergy. The condition for its appearance is considered to be the response of the immune system to the action of certain antigens - anthocyanin or lycopene. These are herbal compounds that are part of red-bordeaux vegetables, fruits and berries. However, there are cases when allergy symptoms appear in response to various harmful chemical additives contained in plant products through the fault of the producers.
When does an allergy occur?
In the development of allergy to tomatoes, three stages can be distinguished:
- At the initial stages of the development of allergic reactions, there is no explicit immune response of the system, there is a process of sensitization - sensitization to the antigen.
- At the next stage, the mast cells, which are an important part of the immune system, are disrupted. Because of their destabilization, active substances that cause changes in the body tissues, histamine and serotonin, enter the bloodstream.
- External manifestations in the form of redness, itching, sneezing, nausea, abdominal incisions and other symptoms are the last stage of allergy to tomatoes. The way the immune system reacts to the antigen depends on the characteristics of the human body.
Who is susceptible to allergic reactions?
Hypersensitivity of the body to the effects of irritant antigens is manifested in people who have a genetic predisposition to synthesizing immunoglobulin E, which requires a certain amount of time to be produced.
The immune system perceives substances that are part of this vegetable as harmful and tries to get rid of them. The antibodies produced are combined with foreign agents, forming antigen complexes. This process stimulates the formation of antibodies and the degranulation of the mast cells of the immune system. The process of allergic manifestations is started.
Tomatoes have the ability to directly affect mast cells, a process called a false allergy to tomatoes. In this case, the symptomatology will be the same as with true hypersensitivity, but without manifestations of severe forms. The reaction of the body will manifest itself after the consumption of tomatoes in large quantities and not be detected at all after they are excluded from the diet. However, the true allergy recalls itself even with a slight ingestion of the vegetable that is part of any dish. False symptoms of an allergy to tomatoes can trigger the administration of certain medications that cause the production of histamine or serotonin in the blood.
Symptoms and manifestations of reactions
Severe allergic symptoms may appear within an hour and a half after the consumption of tomato, and may occur in a few days. Usually signs of the disease are expressed:
- From the intestinal tract. Pain in the stomach, digestive disorders, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, heartburn.
- On the skin. Itching, hives, eczema, puffiness, various spots can occur even when allergic to pollen from tomatoes. Depending on the severity of the disease, irritation of the skin can be localized or spread throughout the body.
- Irritation of mucous membranes. After eating tomatoes, many people start sneezing and coughing, there is a runny nose and increased watery eyes. This is due to the synthesis of histamine, which leads to an increase in the permeability of blood vessels. As a result, small vessels located in the nose and nasopharynx, begin to rapidly lose fluid, which provokes its release from the eyes and nose. In extremely rare cases, eating a vegetable can cause anaphylactic shock - a deadly reaction of the body. In this case, there is an instant development of edema of the face, lips, eyes, tongue. There is a violation of breathing due to an edema of the respiratory tract. Such a process very often leads to a lethal outcome.
Possible complications of
If it is not timely to detect the presence of the disease and not begin treatment in time, the allergy begins to be transformed into various forms of allergic dermatitis or bronchial asthma. Later, allergies to tomatoes will add sensitivity to other allergens - it can be pollen flowering plants, pet hair, some food and other potential irritants.
Such hypersensitivity can have many different manifestations, so it is important to consider any symptoms of allergy to tomatoes. Whether there is an excessive sweating after the use of this vegetable, absent-mindedness or irritability, a sense of anxiety, increased salivation, runny nose or watery eyes? Or maybe the signs of an allergy are different? If such characteristic symptoms are present, it is necessary to consult an allergist.
The main methods used to determine the disease are a blood test and allergy tests. The study of the blood composition gives the most accurate result for the presence of a reaction in the form of the synthesis of antibodies of immunoglobulin E.
The test, carried out in the form of applications, also gives a definite result. In order to carry it out, a sample of a potentially dangerous product is applied to a special applicator and attached to the back of the patient. If the skin shows inflammation within two days, it means that the vegetable really causes allergies. Sometimes conduct prik-tests. A small amount of a potential allergen is injected under the skin. The appearance of any reactions indicates the presence of hypersensitivity to tomatoes or allergies to seedlings of tomatoes.
How to treat the disease?
The best way to combat the signs of allergies is to observe a special diet. Often people resort to medication. These can be antihistamines or special creams and ointments.
Another way to combat allergies is to increase the protective properties of the immune system. Enriching the diet with foods that contain a large number of antioxidants and nutrients helps strengthen immunity. Strong and healthy body is able to withstand the effects of histamine, which, in turn, helps to prevent signs of tomato allergy.
Antihistamines and tablets from the allergy
The list of medicines used for various forms of allergic reactions is quite wide. To remove unpleasant symptoms on the skin will help the use of special ointments: Fenistil, Vundehil, Skin-Cap, Loratadin and other creams.
As an oral medication, doctors usually recommend: "Dimebon", "Dimimentin", "Difigidramine" or "Doxylamine", "Kestin", "Clemastin", "Mebrogrolin", "Loratadin" and "Meklozin."They can appoint Prometazine, Sephifenadine and Telfast, Fexofenadine, Cetirizine, Hifenadine and Cyproheptadine. However, all these drugs can be used only as directed by a doctor. The duration of the treatment course is 2-3 weeks.
Glucocorticoid drugs with anti-inflammatory properties are also prescribed: hydrocortisone, betamethasone, triamcinolone, or fluticasone. In addition, the doctor can advise "Prednisolone", "Dexamethasone" or "Acetonide Fluocinolone".They are prescribed for severe forms of allergy, and a short course, otherwise they can cause serious complications.
To the list of allergy pills, you can add sorbents - Attapulgite, Calcium Carbonate, Hydrolytic Lignin, Lactofiltrum or Filtrum, Enterosgel and Eubicor.
In severe manifestations of allergic reactions with the likelihood of anaphylaxis, intramuscularly appoint "Epinephrine".To remove the symptoms of bronchial asthma, appoint bronchodilators. When hypersensitivity with symptoms of diarrhea apply "Attapulgite" or "Lignin hydrolyzed", and against vomiting - "Meklozin."
In folk medicine, there are many ways to combat the signs of allergies. Decoctions of medicinal herbs are widely used due to excellent therapeutic effect and safety. However, even their reception should start with a consultation of an allergist.
There are many recipes for preparing medicinal tinctures. Here are just a few of them, the most popular among the people.
For example, to prepare a decoction of valerian root, string, thyme, oregano, violet leaves, nettle, chamomile, licorice root and grass horsetail. Take 2 tbsp.spoons of crushed herbs, brew them in half a liter of hot water and boil the broth for 5 minutes. After that, it is filtered, cooled and consumed four times a day in half a glass.
In order to remove allergens from the body, in folk medicine there is such a recipe.
Take 1 tbsp.spoon of buckthorn bark, licorice root, burdock root, dandelion and fennel. Grasses are ground, mixed and laid 5 tablespoons in a thermos bottle. Pour boiling water and insist 12 hours. After that, the infusion is filtered and consumed half the glass 30 minutes before meals.
Allergy symptoms can be eliminated with a certain diet. Allergen should be completely eliminated from the diet. You need to stop using tomatoes and any of their derivatives - juice, red sauces, ketchups. Particularly careful study of the composition of meals used - the basis of such a diet. In addition, you can try replacing fresh tomatoes with boiled or fried, because it is known that heat treatment destroys not only useful vitamins, but also some antigens.