Allergy is polyvalent - what is it? Symptoms
Now the polyvalent allergy is widespread. What it is? This is a condition where one person may have several allergic factors at the same time. Many do not even suspect that they have unusual reactions to food, drugs, chemicals. How does this disease appear?
Polyvalent allergy is an increased sensitivity of the organism to several types of allergens at the same time. Triggers can be either similar in origin or chemical structure, or differ from each other.
If a person contacts simultaneously with several foreign antigens, then in the body in response to such an action, a complex of active substances that provoke stereotyped reactions of tissues and liquids is produced. As a rule, with polyvalent allergies, several systems of organs are affected at once.
Why does someone develop a multivalent allergy, but someone does not? The opinions of scientists have not yet converged on one option, so there are several options, each of which has the right to exist.
The genetic theory leads by the number of followers. It is based on the fact that allergic reactions are determined from the moment of birth and are related to the sequence of nucleotides that we received from parents. In support of this theory is evidenced by the fact that children whose parents have allergies are also more prone to hyperreactivity.
The second hypothesis states that the appearance of allergies is associated with an inadequate or pathological functioning of the immune system. Many people who are hypersensitive are prone to chronic infections, often take antibiotics or hormonal medications and generally do not get out of hospitals.
And finally, the third theory tells that the appearance of an allergy is associated with alcohol and tobacco smoking. This, of course, bad habits, and no benefit to the body, but the evidence that this is provoking hyperreactivity, too, has not yet been found.
In children, a polyvalent allergy may develop due to early introduction of complementary foods or completely artificial feeding. In addition, an important role is played by helminths. They stimulate the immune system and contribute to the emergence of allergies.
As a rule, there is no one reason why hypersensitivity has appeared. It is always a combination of factors.
Polyvalent allergy does not develop suddenly and overnight. What a person takes for an unanticipated reaction of your body is in fact a long-planned operation of your immune system. Whatever the trigger factor, any hypersensitivity reaction goes through three stages of development:
- The first stage: acquaintance with the antigen. The organism first collides with an alien chemical compound, whether it be pollen, perfume, medicine or a microorganism. The process of studying and memorizing, as well as the production of immunoglobulins E, which are responsible for the reactivity of the organism, is being carried out.
- The second stage: cytochemistry. With repeated contact with the allergen, IgE is activated, located on mast cells, and active substances such as histamine, serotonin, interleukins and others are ejected into the blood in large quantities.
- The third stage: the appearance of symptoms. As a result of exposure to the body of a "cocktail" of chemically active substances, a person can have bronchospasm, swelling, itching, reddening of the skin and rashes, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and much more.
The same polyvalent allergy develops. The third level of the process in the case of this disease can be delayed, take bizarre or mixed forms, but it still remains a stereotyped reaction of the body to the invasion of foreign components.
We have already briefly described how the polyvalent allergy manifests itself. Symptoms may appear as soon after contact with the allergen, and be delayed in time. It depends on the dose and exposure( that is, the duration of the effect) of the trigger factor and individual characteristics. So, for example, dust and pollen cause irritation of the mucous respiratory tract, and after swallowing a piece of peanuts, generalized edema develops.
On the part of the respiratory system with polyvalent allergies, symptoms such as rhinitis, dyspnea, bronchial muscles spasm, asthma attacks can occur. It suddenly becomes difficult for a person to breathe, he gasps the air, starts coughing, and can even cry. If the patient knows about his illness, he always has a pocket inhaler with a quick-acting medicine. The ability to quickly help yourself saved the lives of many allergies. As a rule, allergens in this case will be volatile substances: dust, pollen, wool, perfume and other aerosols, medicines.
From the intestine after eating food allergenic products are observed dyspepsia. The patient can attribute stool disorders, nausea and vomiting to poor-quality food or irregular meals, but over time, if the seizures become regular, there is no doubt about their nature.
Polyvalent allergy( ICD-10 gave her the code T78.4) can be manifested as a rash on the skin and mucous membranes. In this case, the mechanism of getting the allergen is fundamentally unimportant, but a much more intensive reaction develops with direct contact, for example, washing hands, cleaning the premises, collecting flowers and fruits. Often hives cause food or chemical allergens: alcohol, disaggregants, disinfectants, decorative cosmetics and the like.
Clinically, this kind of polyvalent allergy appears in the form of redness of the skin according to the type of burn, edema and the appearance of small bubbles with transparent contents. In some cases, itching is attached. Symptoms of urticaria are easily removed with antihistamine ointments, sprays and tablets( in case the rashes are very common).There are no changes on the skin, but once it appears, this type of allergy likes to recur and spoil patients.
Polyvalent allergy when exposed to a large amount of an allergen may manifest as edema of the neck tissue, or Quincke's edema. Sometimes, in the case of insect bites in the face and mouth or food allergy, a large dose is not necessary. The mucous and subcutaneous tissue of the upper respiratory tract and neck organs is well vascularized, so the pathological agent spreads rapidly throughout the area.
As a rule, Quincke's edema is an immediate allergic reaction and can become fatal to a person even when first contacting an allergen. Because of the edema, there is a false croup - a narrowing of the larynx lumen - and, as a consequence, a disturbance of the air current and a stopping of breathing. If the patient is not provided with urgent care, then the chances of a favorable outcome will fall sharply. That's why every doctor has a reanimation kit at hand: Adrenaline, Ephedrine, Prednisolone and Eufillin. These are first-aid drugs for angioedema.
The most dangerous condition for allergy sufferers is anaphylactic shock. Most often, it occurs when you ingest allergens: food or medicine. The amount of matter is unimportant, since to start the reaction immediately, the type of a tiny particle is sufficient to trigger a massive degranulation of the mast cells.
Symptom of this condition is a sharp drop in blood pressure, accompanied by loss of consciousness or coma, obstructed, superficial, rare breathing, seizures and pallor. A man who, a second ago, felt great, now dies in front of frightened passers-by. With the development of such a scenario, you need to immediately call an ambulance and, if necessary, hold emergency activities yourself( if you know how, of course).
It is important for a doctor to be able to distinguish between anaphylactic shock from massive pulmonary embolism( pulmonary embolism), acute heart attack, stroke and other conditions accompanied by a sudden collaptoid syndrome.
Polyvalent drug allergy
Recently, cases of development of allergic reactions to medicinal substances have become more frequent in clinical practice. More often for one, less often for several at the same time. Experts believe that uncontrolled use of medicines and regular cases of self-medication led to such a situation.
At the first sign of OZ( acute respiratory disease) people do not go to the doctor, but go to the pharmacy, where they buy strong antibiotics or antiviral drugs. Then take them on a self-selected scheme. This aggravates the already available resistance of microorganisms to treatment and provokes the development of allergic reactions.
Another reason is the morbid, even pathological, tendency of modern man to cleanliness. Everywhere you can find antibacterial soap, napkins and sprays. It is certainly good that there are similar means, but they are appropriate to use in hospitals and other similar institutions, but not at home. Not allowing the body to contact microbes, we reduce its immune abilities and provoke the development of allergies.
Piobacteriophage is a multicomponent vaccine aimed at minimizing the consequences after bacterial infections of staphylococcal and streptococcal nature. Allergic to pyobacteriophage polyvalent may occur if the dose of the drug is not complied with or individual intolerance, but, as a rule, such cases are quite rare. Most often, the drug allergy develops into antibiotics, local and general anesthetics, latex, preparations containing essential oils.
A polyvalent food allergy can be caused by some kind of product, as well as by the substances with which this product is processed in factories or in the field. There is a list of the most common food allergens:
- In the first place, of course, nuts. Even minor, trace amounts of this product can cause Quincke's swelling and anaphylaxis. Therefore, manufacturers must specify such information on the packaging.
- Seafood, especially those that are not found in our latitudes. These include crustaceans, shrimp, red caviar.
- Eggs. Chicken protein is able to cause a fairly violent allergic reaction, so some mothers carefully introduce this product into the baby's diet and begin, as a rule, with the yolk.
- Strawberry and other red fruits cause a rash like urticaria and swelling of the face in children.
- Any exotic fruit, especially citrus fruit. Substances that are contained in the bones and the peel of such fruits can be powerful allergens.
- Cereals made from wheat: mango, oatmeal, pearl barley and others. They contain gluten, which is harmful to people with celiac disease( genetic bowel disease).
- Our top honey finishes. This is certainly a useful and extremely necessary product, but if a person already has an allergy to pollen, then honey and its derivatives will also be.
A polyvalent food allergy may appear in both a small child and an adult. As a rule, children outgrow allergy to foods and may not even know about it after a long time.
Polyvalent allergy( code for ICD-10 is indicated above) is diagnosed quite simply, but also difficult at the same time. The difficulty is that it is impossible to conduct a test for absolutely all allergens. It is quite expensive and often meaningless. Doctors recommend that before such a procedure independently make a list of alleged trigger factors and check only them.
There are two ways to determine the allergen. The first is skin tests. On the inner side of the forearm, small slashes are applied to suspensions of allergens in strong dilution. Some( small) time later, the doctor checks the place of application. If there is redness or swelling, then this is a likely allergen.
The second method is the determination of antibodies in the blood. This is a painstaking and long-lasting method, requiring significant material costs. But it gives a more accurate result. To it resort only in the event that it is required to determine the level of reactivity to the already known allergen.
Is polyvalent allergy amenable to therapy? Treatment, of course, is available, but it is long and cumbersome. First and foremost, the effect of the allergen on the body is excluded. We'll have to part with the pets, change the pillows, often do wet cleaning and air the premises. Observe the diet, refuse to take certain medicines and use cosmetics.
In emergency cases, use antihistamines. They block receptors that capture histamine, and do not allow it to interact with the tissues of the body. This quickly alleviates the symptoms, but the side effects of such drugs are in excess, so this therapy is resorted exclusively to the need.
Polyvalent allergy( the ICD code you already know) can develop in a healthy, at first glance, person, so it is difficult to prepare or avoid it. Doctors advise to adhere to the right way of life, avoid exotic foods in the food, be sure to carry out allergic tests before taking new medications and at the slightest sign of a disease consult a doctor, and not try to heal yourself.