How to live with one kidney: restrictions, diet
Kidneys are the most important organs of a living being. If they are absent or completely removed without the connection of hemodialysis( "artificial kidney"), human life is impossible. To answer the question "Is it possible to live with one kidney?", First of all it is necessary to understand the functions of this organ.
Kidneys are paired organs that excrete unnecessary and harmful metabolic products, toxins from the body. Primary function:
- filtration of blood constituents;
- isolation from the body by-products of metabolism;
- urine formation.
But this is not all the tasks that kidneys perform in the body. Their additional functions:
- Direct participation in hematopoiesis.
- Osmoregulation - maintaining the proper level of water and the percentage of salts in the body.
- Ionoregulation - adjustment of the balance of acids and alkalies in blood plasma.
- Metabolism( metabolism) - the formation of vitamins, maintenance at the proper level of the volume of lipids( fats), carbohydrates and proteins in internal fluids.
- Endocrine function - the production of hormones that are responsible for the regulation of the total volume of circulating blood, the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow, the preservation of the right amount of water in the body.
Possible reasons for the absence of the
body According to statistics, 0.05% of people, and this is about one in every five out of 10 thousand, live with one kidney without even knowing it. A person can have a single organ for a number of reasons:
- Aplasia, agenesis of the organ - underdevelopment or congenital absence of the organ.
- Dysplasia - the so-called renal tissue defect, which does not allow the body to perform its functions.
- Nephrectomy - forced surgical removal of the organ. This measure is necessary in the presence of large cysts on the kidney, urolithiasis with purulent lesions, the formation of an organ of axalate stones, serious developmental anomalies, malignant tumor, physical trauma accompanied by the inhibition of renal tissues.
- Kidney donation to another person.
Diagnosis of the first two cases is carried out by the following methods:
- angiography, magnetic resonance;
- CT multispectral;
- CT helical;
- angiography-X-ray of the kidneys.
Features of the functioning of one body
Do they live with one kidney? Definitely, yes. If one organ is lost, the other takes over its functions completely, hypertrophies( increases in size), starts to work with redoubled force. Such a phenomenon( restorative, compensatory) is the norm for a living organism.
If you can live with one kidney, is there an opportunity to live with the absence of such? Today this is possible. The output is the installation of lifelong dialysis( "artificial kidney" system) or a donor organ transplant. In the second case, one must constantly fear rejection of the kidney, since lymphocytes perceive it as an "enemy" foreign body, which must be rendered harmless, destroyed. Therefore, patients take strong immunosuppressants, suppressing the protective functions of their body.
Is it possible to live with a single kidney: the consequences of
The vast majority of patients who have had a kidney removed do not experience serious health problems. Although a person undergoes a number of difficulties in the postoperative and rehabilitation stage, the presence of one organ instead of a pair does not affect the duration of his life. Therefore, the question "How many live without a kidney?"is incorrect.
Consequences may be as follows:
- violation of major renal function;
- high blood pressure( hypertension);
- formation in the abdominal area of adhesions, hernias;
- recurrence of tumor formation( if the kidney was removed due to damage by its cancer cells).
How to live with a single kidney after surgery: patients should periodically visit a specialist nephrologist, submit biochemical tests to monitor the functioning of the body 1-2 times a year. Sometimes a computed tomography is recommended. A person becomes fully able-bodied after two months of rehabilitation. A woman with one kidney can normally transfer labor and give birth to a healthy baby.
The main rules of a full life
How to live with one kidney fully:
- Follow a diet.
- To address to HLS, completely to refuse bad habits - tobacco, alcohol, drugs.
- Take an annual examination.
- Observe drinking regimen.
- From power loads go to easy gymnastics, physical education, long walking tours.
- Teach yourself to hardening water procedures.
- Avoid contact with infectious patients( including parasitic diseases).
- Do not engage in self-medication of any body dysfunction.
- Carry out timely therapy for acute infectious and chronic inflammatory diseases.
- Avoid prolonged direct sun exposure and excessive supercooling.
- Refuse from heavy physical labor.
Optimal components of the diet
How to live with one kidney in full force? Observe a certain diet. It reduces the burden on the only functioning organ and urinary system as a whole, helps to recover faster.
In the first 24 hours after the operation, the patient is offered to completely stop eating. Two hours after nephrectomy, mouth rinsing is permitted, taking a small amount of water. Since sometimes the removal of the kidney is accompanied by a violation of the intestinal functions, then to stabilize its functions, appropriate medicines and special nutrition are prescribed.
The main conditions of the diet during the rehabilitation period:
- Milk, sour-milk products - 2-3 times a week. The restriction is due to the calcium content in this food - its high concentration may cause the formation of sand in the kidney. Allowed low-fat cottage cheese, sour cream, yogurt, cream.
- Fruits and vegetables. These products, whether boiled or fresh, should account for 70-80% of all food consumed. They are easily digested, contain an optimal set of vitamins, have a beneficial effect on digestion.
- Lipids. Unrefined cold pressed vegetable oils: mustard, sesame, sunflower, olive, corn, flaxseed.
- Carbohydrates. From simple species, the patient is recommended to refuse: sugars, sweets, carbonated drinks, bakery products from white flour. Preference for complex carbohydrates: grain black bread, porridge, bran, vegetables.
- Proteins. The amount of protein food consumption( meat, fish - only low-fat varieties, eggs) should be reduced to 2-3 meals per week.
- Liquids. In order not to overload the only functioning organ, you should drink no more than 1-1.5 liters of fluid per day. This volume will not overload the kidney and at the same time will help remove all toxins from the body. Preference for diluted water with vegetable and fruit juices, fruit drinks. Do not abuse strong black and green tea, coffee, meat broth.
- Spices. Minimize salt intake.
Fasting, vegetarianism, raw food is undesirable - such a diet can deprive the kidney of a support layer of fat, due to which it is firmly held in place.
Food should not enter the body hot, not cold, but warm. Products are boiled, baked, stewed. A good option is to buy a steamer or multivark. These devices keep in the prepared dishes the maximum of useful and necessary microelements, vitamins.
Preference is given to fresh products. When you store them, you need to pay attention to its conditions, the rules of freezing. Eat several times a day in small portions, at the same time.
- quail eggs;
- skimmed milk products;
- unsalted hard cheese;
- pasta from hard varieties of wheat;
- lean fish;
- vegetable broth;
- low-fat veal, rabbit meat;
- "white meat" birds - chicken, turkey;
- fruit and berry juices, jellies, mousses, cocktails, compotes;
- bran bread;
- the first dishes for vegetarian recipes, but with the addition of butter;
- leaves of lettuce, beets, cucumbers, cauliflower, potatoes.
How to live with one kidney without problems? Completely abandon the following products:
- conservation, home and shop, including marinades and pickles;
- sausages, sausages, smoked products, semi-finished products;
- sweets containing white sugar;
- bakery products made from white flour;
- sweet carbonated water;
- therapeutic mineral drinks( especially containing sodium);
- any alcohol - even beer;
- fatty meat and broth from it;
- of salted, fried, spicy foods;
- onion, garlic, tomatoes, spinach and mushrooms.
Undesirable: legumes, fish, meat broths, salted cheeses, milk chocolate, sorrel, celery, parsley, radish, radish.
Speaking about how to live with one kidney correctly, you can not not affect sports. Be sure to benefit from hiking, cycling, cross-country skiing, skating, swimming, equestrian sports, therapeutic gymnastics, fitness, morning exercises. The kidneys "love" the circular torso rotations, the slopes.
However, it is worth refraining from power sports, exhausting training, professional records. Also it is worth paying attention to the ration of the athlete. Bodybuilders, bodybuilders are shown increased protein intake, which is unacceptable for a diet with a single kidney. Sports with an increased risk of serious injury to the only body - boxing, football, basketball are also undesirable.
One kidney and pregnancy
Until recently, pregnancy and childbirth with one kidney were considered deadly to a woman - there was a risk that the body could refuse. The level of modern medical care allows you to get a favorable prognosis of pregnancy while complying with comprehensive health control( patients with one kidney are prone to infections), a certain regime of the day - alternating rest and labor, the right diet. Contraindication to pregnancy is only the removal of the kidney due to cancer.
How many people live with one kidney? No less than having a pair body. As for any other person, life expectancy is affected by hereditary data, ecology, lifestyle, addiction to bad habits, the presence of other diseases.