The disease of syphilis: consequences, diagnosis and treatment features
Despite the wide range of contraceptives, in particular condoms, many women and men lose their sanity, neglecting their use during their contacts with unverified partners. Relying on luck or simply not thinking about the future, they are sure that they will not be exposed to the disease from the venereological spectrum. But sexually transmitted diseases do not dry out, and infected people every year more and more. In terms of the duration and severity of the course, for many years, syphilis has held the lead, the consequences of which are so palpable that even if you get rid of this ill-fated problem, you will hardly ever forget about it forever.
The causative agent of syphilis
Pale treponema is the most dangerous microbial that causes this disease. Active and strong, such a microorganism can be called only when it resides in the human body, but the microbe can not boast of stability beyond its limits. A sharp temperature drop and a lack of sufficient humidity are detrimental to treponema.
Settling in the human body, treponema poses the greatest threat to others at the first stage of its development and formation, the duration of which on average is about two years. Defeating most of the organs and systems of the body, the disease has a periodic recurrence of exacerbations and without proper attention and treatment passes into a chronic form.
Transmission routes of infection
Primarily this infectious disease is transmitted during sexual contact, with a huge role played by microscopic damage to the skin and mucous membranes. Syphilis, the consequences of which go beyond the scope of venereology, are classified as a category of sexually transmitted diseases. However, the chance of infection, albeit small, is present in other, more habitual circumstances( by the household, with blood transfusions, during dental procedures).
First changes in the body
During the first month after infection, the presence of syphilis is usually invisible. Its first manifestations are most often observed on the patient's skin. At the site of penetration treponema formed ulcer red expressive color with a solid dense base. The so-called chancre is the most pitting, which soon disappears without medical intervention and causes patients to erroneously think that all the negative consequences of the disease are behind.
As if euthanizing the vigilance of the affected person, the microbe quickly moves around the body. While the pale treponema multiplies by damaging all internal tissues and organs, the patient can feel only discomfort, which in its appearance resembles the development of respiratory infection. There is a headache, fever, general weakness and fatigue, which at first glance seem to be very harmless cold symptoms.
The missed start of treatment at this stage of the development of the disease helps to detect rashes, ulcers on the mucous membranes, feet and palms in the near future.
Diagnosis of syphilis. RW
Having the slightest suspicion of potential infection, doctors prescribe a simple and reliable method that allows for certain diagnosis of the presence of the disease. This is Wasserman's reaction. Its use to detect infection has become widespread in clinical studies.
But do not forget that a negative reaction to the presence of the disease after a short time after infection is quite likely to be imaginary. In this case, more accuracy in the analyzes can be achieved by taking a scraping from the surface of the chancre in order to detect a pale spirochete.
Positive result on RW is typical for the second half of the initial stage of the disease, which is why a single pass of the RW test does not guarantee a hundred percent reliability of the tests and needs to be repeated.
Healing chancre is replaced by the appearance of papules - pink spots on the skin. This most common symptom of the secondary stage of syphilis comes painlessly a month after the passage of ulcers. Papules are often mistaken for an allergic reaction due to the absence of any unpleasant sensations( itching, burning, inflammation of the skin).
In the formulation of the diagnosis, it is Wassermann's reaction to syphilis that minimizes the huge risk. The consequences of possible irreversible complications can be excluded by timely diagnosis.
Main consequences of the initial stage of syphilis in men
Often, additional bacterial lesions are added to the main complications of the disease course. In most cases, in men they are manifested:
- edematous tissues and their inflammation;
- phimosis( narrowing of the foreskin of the penis);
- paraphimosis( pinprick, causing necrosis);
- gangrene of the male genitalia.
To signs of the secondary stage of the disease, which can lead to serious deterioration in health, include pustular rash. Left without proper attention, they can be accompanied by headaches, fever, general weakness and fatigue. Also, men can detect severe baldness, loss of voice.
These complications are more common in men who lead an immoral lifestyle, abusing alcohol and taking no measures to overcome syphilis. What consequences await women, also worth exploring.
Consequences of advanced syphilis in women
The first complications of the disease appear on the mucous membranes of the female genital organs. The vagina, cervix and external labia are covered with chancre. Adapted in the new organism, treponema continues to destroy it, affecting the blood vessels and lymph nodes.
If the right time comes for qualified medical care, the consequences of treated syphilis in women will still be quite serious. The disease can be dangerous not only for the carrier. Even after a full course of treatment can not be ruled out the risk of the appearance of a sick baby from a mother who has suffered a disease. But still it is incomparable with the danger and harm that the mother who suffers from syphilis is doing to the fetus. About a quarter of these pregnancies result in a natural interruption at the 12-16 week period. As many sick children die, not having lived and three days.
Due to these facts, every pregnant woman is required to take tests for syphilis, the consequences of which can endanger two lives.
Unrecoverable complications of the tertiary period
The peculiarity of this stage of the disease course is the inevitability leading to the death of the body of changes, which include neurosyphilis and visceral syphilis.
Syphilitic meningitis( neurosyphilis) is the stage:
- of brain cell death;
- significant decrease in intellectual abilities;
- memory degradation;
- of limb paralysis;
- atrophy of the optic nerve.
When visceral syphilis expands the aorta, heart failure develops, which leads to an inflammatory process of the arteries. Also, the condition of the lungs, the functioning of the kidneys and heart valve deteriorates.
Features of treatment today
The truth, which claims that it is easier to overcome any disease at its very beginning, describes the peculiarities of syphilis treatment. At present, the approach to the recovery method goes through a path of improvement aimed at early recognition of the problem. The consequences of treating syphilis should be as harmless to the patient as possible.
As before, the basic component of the curative plan consistently remained drugs containing penicillin prolonged action. These are durant preparations with benzathine benzylpenicillins in their composition.
Methods of treatment in the early stages of the disease
Modern durant preparations do not need special recommendations for use. However, in a thorough thorough examination of the patient and preliminary refinement of the stage of the disease, the administration of such drugs has a positive effect on the consequences after syphilis . Durant medicines are injected no more often than once a week and prescribe them in case of manifestation of fresh syphilis or a latent second stage of the disease. The maximum duration of the course is up to 3 injections. The effectiveness of such medicines is proven when they are taken with a preventive purpose. It is sufficient to administer the preparation only once to minimize the risk of infection with a recent contact with the patient.
In this case, to cure the recurrent manifestation of the disease, as most doctors believe, using similar forms of penicillin is almost impossible, since they do not give a full guarantee in terms of removing infection from the spinal cord fluid.
The effectiveness of the treatment course at later stages of
The effects of syphilis, already found in the second stage, are much harder to overcome. Complications caused by infection, develop not only in the internal organs of man. The central nervous system is under threat. Often, for patients with such a severe form of the disease, the stationary regime and complex combination therapy consisting of water-soluble penicillin, antibiotics of tetracycline groups, macrolides, cephalosporins, preparations containing bismuth are most acceptable. The latter suppress the active life of the pathogen and have an anti-inflammatory effect. At the same time, their "shock" force leaves its mark, causing endocrine disorders, significantly reducing immunity and affecting the chromosomal range of the patient. Throughout life, the presence of a positive trace reaction that affects the results of control tests is likely.
Therefore, mandatory in the treatment scheme is the appointment of immunomodulating agents that support the protective functions of the body. Still, it is not possible to completely eliminate the consequences after treatment of syphilis, which is extremely damaging to the state of health.