Blood infection. Pathogens of blood infections. Prevention of diseases
Human attack various pathological microorganisms. Some are transmitted by airborne droplets, others by blood. How to deal with blood infections, and what are the causes of their occurrence?
What is a blood infection?
This is an infectious disease that occurs when a pathogenic microflora enters the body through the blood. Recently, such microorganisms often affect human health. The causative agents of blood infections are viruses, protozoa, bacteria and rickettsia. They are constantly in the circulatory system, that is, in a closed space, and can not freely exit from the human body.
These include especially dangerous infections, such as plague, yellow fever, malaria, typhus. These diseases are most often transmitted by insects: ticks, fleas, lice. Such a blood infection is transmitted through the saliva of an insect from one person or animal to another at a time when they are bitten by this insect itself. This type of diseases is also referred to as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. They can enter the human body through infected instruments, during sexual intercourse.
What kinds of these diseases are there?
There are two types of blood infection: transmissive and non-transmissible. Transmissible blood infections are carried by living beings. They include the plague, malaria, hemorrhagic fevers, typhus. Sources of such infections may be a sick person or animal, and carriers - insects.
Pathogens are constantly multiplying during their stay in the body of parasites. Pathogenic microorganisms can be found not only in the saliva of an insect, but also in its body, or on its surface. A person can be infected not only with a bite, but when crushing a parasite.
Non-transmissible blood infections are transmitted directly from person to person during contact.
Infectious processes in the blood can be bacterial and viral. Bloody viral infections occur when a person of an appropriate type enters the human body. It can be a human immunodeficiency virus or a viral hepatitis. Bloody bacterial infections occur when a bacterium enters the body, for example, a malignant agent.
Routes of transmission of blood infections
Among the ways of transmission of blood infections are allocated:
A bloodborne infection transmitted by a transmission route, that is, arising from infection through the blood, occurs when some insects bite.
The natural way of transmission of this pathology is from mother to fetus, during lactation, during sexual intercourse.
Man can artificially get infected if the pathogen gets on damaged skin and mucous membranes, during medical procedures and operations through poorly processed tools. A person can be infected with blood transfusion by transfusion of contaminated blood. Injecting drug users can infect each other when using one syringe by two or more persons.
The role of parasites in the transmission of infection
Several types of parasites, for example, lice, can transmit the infection. They parasitize only in humans, so they can carry infectious diseases, such as parasitic typhus.
This disease, like malaria, can occur only if the malarious plasmodium passes the cycle of development in the body of a female Anopheles mosquito.
In the outbreak of the plague, an enormous role is played by such rodents as rats. And tick-borne encephalitis can be transmitted by mites that carry this infection.
Therefore, the leading role belongs to such activities as disinfection( fighting with pathogenic organisms), disinfestation( fighting insects, which are spread by pathogenic microorganisms), deratization( control of wild rodents) as the preventive measures of blood infections.
Signs of a blood infection in a person
If the causative agent of an infectious process gets into the human body, its increased reproduction occurs. This is reflected both on the person's health, on his appearance, and on laboratory and clinical indicators.
All infectious diseases transmitted through the blood have their manifestations, but there are also those that are common to all these pathologies. Symptoms of human blood infections are:
- rapid pulse;
- increased body temperature;
- pain in the head region;
- decreased appetite;
- skin becomes pale;
- may cause diarrhea or vomiting.
Diagnosis for blood infections
If a patient is suspected of an infection in the patient's blood, a clinical analysis of this biological fluid is prescribed. In the presence of an infectious focus in the analysis results, there will be an increase in the number of leukocytes, sticks, increased ESR.If you suspect a malaria, a blood smear is done on a thick drop.
Be sure to examine urine for general analysis. At far gone processes the function of the kidneys is disrupted, which will be reflected in laboratory indicators.
Biochemical blood tests are mandatory for suspected infectious blood processes. At the same time, the blood is examined for HIV and syphilis( these tests are mandatory for any hospitalization and preventive medical examination).
If bacterial infections are suspected, bacteriological cultures are produced.
Treatment of such infection
Most blood infections are life threatening conditions. Therefore, all patients with suspected of this ailment are hospitalized. For each infectious disease - its specific treatment. But almost all require the appointment of antibacterial therapy, a large number of vitamins and trace elements that help the body cope with the disease.
Detoxication therapy is also prescribed in the form of intravenous drip glucose, Ringer's solution, physiological solution.
Prevention of such diseases
To protect yourself from infections transmitted through the blood, you must follow the rules of personal hygiene. After visiting the toilet, you must wash your hands with soap and water. Fruits and vegetables before eating thoroughly wash with warm water. To monitor the cleanliness of bedding, personal hygiene. It is important to ensure the constant purity of the body, the clothes of a man, his shoes. This is necessary to prevent infection in the house.
Prevention of blood infections is also carried out at the state level, with the help of certain programs for draining wetlands, inspections and so on. To get rid of zavshivlennosti in children's institutions and various organizations periodically conducted a medical check. After a rest in the forest, it's important to examine yourself and the children to avoid getting the mites under your skin. From pathogens on the skin will help permanent washing hands. It is important to fight with pediculosis, to destroy mosquitoes and various rodents. On the windows in the summer, you should hang an mosquito net.
Also for the prevention of viral infections of blood it is necessary to avoid promiscuous sexual contacts. For medical procedures, use only sterile instruments and gloves.