Fracture of the hand: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
No one is immune from injuries, including serious ones. In this case, residents can not always determine the severity of the damage, which is very important for timely treatment. Fracture of the hand is no exception, because sometimes the victim does not realize that the bone is broken. For this reason it is important to study the key symptoms of fracture.
The essence of the problem
In the winter or with an active lifestyle, strong falls are possible with an emphasis on the brush. Also in this area of the hands can be dealt a tangible blow, for example, in production.
With such types of exposure, a fracture of the hand is not excluded.
Trauma of this type can have three forms:
- fractures of metacarpal bones;
- phalanges of the fingers( are the most common);
- of the bones of the wrist.
We can not ignore the fact that the fracture is sometimes accompanied by a displacement, which is fraught with additional complications, so if you have any effects on the brush that caused severe pain, you should consult your doctor.
Classification of the disease
Perhaps not everyone knows about this, but in the medical field there is an international classification of diseases. In this data system, each disease and its varieties are assigned a specific code, which is indicated by a number and letters.
In the ICD, a fracture of the hand is placed in section S00-T98( subheadings 60 to 69), which is devoted to injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external influences. In this part of the international classification, all the actual types of fractures injuring the wrist and wrist( first, second metacarpal bone, thumb, multiple lesions, etc.) are fixed.
With the help of these data it is possible to accurately determine the specific type of fracture and to deliver a competent, accurate diagnosis.
Fracture of the bones of the hand is difficult not to notice, but still let's name certain signs that will not allow confusing it with a bruise.
To begin with it is necessary to determine the main symptomatology:
- when you try to unbend your fingers there is a strong pain;
- on the back side a noticeable swelling is formed;
- if a severe injury has been obtained, the general condition of the victim may worsen;
- in the brush area is noticeable deformation.
At the same time, the skin acquires a bluish tint, and the pain can be felt not only when the fingers are unbent, but also during any, even minor, movements.
Scaphoid and metacarpal bones
After damage to these components of the brush, some time later, the edema appears to make any movements problematic. If the metacarpal heads were broken, swelling and deformity would appear on the back of the palm, directly at the site of the injury.
But the fracture of the brush in the scaphoid bone area can lead to additional difficulties in addition to the main consequences of trauma. Most often, such damage is a consequence of the fall, during which the victim placed emphasis on the palm. As a result, painful sensations occur at the base of the hand from the side of the thumb. In this case, the pain can be characterized as aching, constant, with low intensity. There is no deformity in such trauma, and a slight swelling appears, though. This is the essence of the problem.
When the victim does not feel strong pain after falling and does not observe any signs of deformation of the brush, he remains far from realizing that a fracture occurred. In the end, everything can be reduced to self-treatment without professional diagnostics and the help of qualified medics. In some cases, the victim is decided to visit the doctor after a few months from the time when the fracture of the hand was received. Damage to other bones, in addition to scaphoid and metacarpal, is rarely recorded.
It is worth knowing that fractures and bruises have several common symptoms: edema and sharp or aching pain. Therefore, after a fall or other external impact, you must in any case visit the hospital.
If a fracture of the brush with a displacement was detected, then most likely, surgery will be required, namely osteosynthesis and reposition. This fact once again underscores the need for timely diagnosis.
Features of children's fractures
Initially, it is worth paying attention to the fact that organic compounds in children's bones are significantly more than in adults. As a consequence, the sheath protecting the bones( periosteum) also has better hardness and elasticity. These characteristics allow children to suffer a fracture of the hand in a different way.
These are the following differences from injuries received by adults:
1. In patients of younger age group after trauma, self-correction of residual displacement is possible. This ability is explained by the active functioning of the muscles and the rapid growth of bone tissue.
2. Tissues and damaged structures in children recover much faster and easier than in people of adulthood because of the accelerated appearance of bone calluses and high blood circulation of the periosteum.
3. Children's fractures are also different in that the injury is more like bending or breaking the bone. For the same reason, the displacement of fragments remains insignificant.
In such a trauma the child will cry and remain in a noticeably agitated state. In the rest, the hand after the fracture in children has the same changes as in adults( swelling, loss of mobility, deformity, pain, swelling, etc.).
It is obvious that it is easier to restore a child's body after an injury, but this does not mean that you can lightly treat the issue of treatment. The participation of doctors in this case is mandatory, and as soon as possible.
If, after an injury, signs that are characteristic of a fracture appear, you need to be prepared to perform a few simple but important actions.
First of all, it is important that the victim took an anesthetic, after which his brush will have to be fixed. Such actions will protect the injured area from additional damage due to arbitrary movements. In the case when you have to deal with an open fracture, the first task to be performed is to stop the bleeding, and quickly.
The next important action is removing any jewelry from the damaged brush. Such measures are caused by a possible mechanical disturbance of blood circulation from the pressure of rings or bracelets. In addition, when there is swelling, remove jewelry will be much more difficult.
If there is a fracture of the finger of the hand, it is necessary to apply cold to the damaged site and thereby slow the appearance of edema. This action will also reduce pain.
To determine the characteristics of the injury, you must first consult a trauma doctor, who learns the cause of the injury from the patient, inspects the brush and afterwards directs to a radiographic examination.
The latter method, by the way, is extremely important, as it allows to differentiate the fracture of the hand from dislocation or trauma of the radius. The bottom line is that the upper row of the bones of the wrist is connected to the radial joint, in case of damage which the pain can give to the wrist.
In such a situation, it is extremely difficult to accurately determine the area of damage without radiography. On the basis of this information, one can draw an obvious conclusion: to be treated at home after any injury to the hand, and even more so the brush, is a serious mistake.
In the vast majority of cases, surgery for a hand injury is not required. For more efficient and quick recovery, fragments of the affected bone are fixed by means of a bandage, which often reaches the elbow.
7 days after this fixation, the radiography of the brush is done. This makes it possible to determine how the damaged area grows together. The bandage is removed in 4-5 weeks in most cases.
If a finger( one phalanx) was broken without a bias, then as a restorative measure the overlay will be used.
In the case when it is necessary to deal with a fracture of the first metacarpal bone, the fragments are repositioned, and within two days from the moment of injury. For fixing, plaster, pins and spokes can be used. With injuries without the displacement of other metacarpal bones after repositioning, it will be sufficient to have gypsum.
As for the fracture of the scaphoid bone, its treatment is most difficult. In most cases gypsum is suitable for fixation, but not always. It is worth noting that it is much more difficult to treat such trauma if the fracture line passes through the bone. In this case, the restoration can take up to six months.
If you have to treat a finger, then fix only the damaged phalanx, and for a minimum period. The position of the finger remains semi-bent.
Sometimes you have to treat a more severe fracture. Offsetting the brush, for example, can significantly complicate the recovery process. The most effective method of exposure in this case is an open or closed reposition. Another complicating factor may be an open fracture, for the treatment of which surgical intervention, or rather, cutaneous plastic, is used.
Many patients want to know if the brush retains its functionality after fracture and subsequent recovery. The outcome largely depends on the actions of the victims themselves. That the bones are again so mobile as before the injury, they need to constantly develop. But starting such activity is meaningful only after the doctor confirms that the bone has grown together.
Begin the recovery process better with light exercises( flexion-extension, rotation of the palm, etc.).Sharp movements are contraindicated. It takes several weeks to work. In some cases, for a full recovery, you have to work hard on the state of the brush for half a year.
At the same time, it is necessary to exclude any initiative - all exercises, as well as their intensity and duration, must be coordinated with the attending physician.
Fracture of the brush is a very unpleasant trauma, which significantly complicates the life of the victim. But this problem can be overcome if you immediately go to the doctors and start a qualified treatment.