How to cope with methanol poisoning? Symptoms and features of treatment
Today on the market you can find a lot of products of dubious origin. Some of them look so good that people buy them. As a result, poisoning often occurs. And if just food poisoning can be cured in half a day, then methanol poisoning is much more dangerous.
The enemy must know in person
Methyl alcohol is a colorless liquid, with a characteristic alcohol smell. It is used in industry for the production of household chemicals: solvents, paints, and other. Sometimes methanol compounds are used in the manufacture of drugs. Methanol is toxic and toxic, so it is extremely cautious to handle it.
The trivial name of methanol is wood alcohol. It was first discovered by Bowl in 1661, during the process of dry distillation of wood. In pure form, methyl alcohol was produced in 200 years. And in 1932 a method was discovered, which methanol is being produced to this day.
Methanol poisoning is possible when it enters the body. This happens in two ways. The first - the use of products containing methyl alcohol. And the second - the inhalation of methanol vapor. Most often, poisoning is due to the use of low-quality alcohol. Not all manufacturers adhere to recipes and think about the health of their customers, so instead of ethyl alcohol is often present in alcoholic beverages methyl alcohol.
Sometimes alcohol poisoning is of a massive nature due to the introduction of a large batch of poor quality alcohol beverages on the market. In 2011, mass poisoning occurred in Turkey, and a year later - in the Czech Republic.
Once in the human body, methanol decomposes into formic acid and pharmacaldehyde. Both substances are harmful to the liver, heart and many other internal organs.
How to protect yourself from methanol poisoning
When choosing alcohol, you need to check the availability of licenses and certificates. It is advisable to purchase alcoholic beverages in well-known stores with trusted suppliers.
Drivers are constantly faced with a variety of liquids, which may include methanol. To poison yourself, deep enough to inhale a pair of winter washer for the glass from an unreliable manufacturer. And poisoning can occur when this same washer gets on the skin. Therefore, all procedures with "anti-freezing" should preferably be carried out in gloves and in a ventilated room.
Those who work in chemical production, of course, are also at risk of methanol poisoning. Well and simple people methanol waits in varnishes, paints, solvents, some washing substances and so on. Banal security measures will help to avoid unpleasant consequences.
Methanol poisoning: symptoms of
It should be noted right away that the effect of methanol on the body directly depends on the dose. Therefore, it is not necessary to await with horror all of the following symptoms with mild poisoning.
Signs of methanol poisoning are quite extensive, because it affects all internal organs. Upon ingestion, methyl alcohol is accumulated in the liver for several minutes. However, the first symptoms appear after about eight hours. Among the problems with the gastrointestinal tract, there are such signs of poisoning: nausea, spasms, flatulence, a cutting pain in the stomach.
Methyl alcohol can affect even the organs of vision and hearing. Vision mainly suffers. With severe poisoning, it is almost impossible to restore it. Vision begins to suffer gradually after methanol poisoning occurs. Symptoms are observed such as: partial or complete blindness, ripples and pain in the eyes, the nebula of vision.
The effect of methanol on the nervous system is determined by such signs: convulsions, trembling in the limbs, headache, fainting, irritability.
The cardiovascular system also reacts to the ingestion of methyl alcohol into the body. Changes in blood pressure( increases or decreases), the pulse becomes faster, pain in the heart region may appear. If the pressure rises, blood can go from the nose.
If methanol hits the skin, it is likely to cause a burn. With severe poisoning, a person can lose consciousness or even fall into a coma. This happens gradually, therefore, with the slightest symptoms of intoxication, it is worth taking drastic measures.
It's time to say what to do with methanol poisoning. So, first of all you need to find out how the poison affects the body: in liquid form it got into the stomach, in the form of steam got into the lungs, or it got on the skin.
To cope with poisoning with methanol, which got into the body with food or drinks, you need to start with a stomach wash. This is done with the help of pure water or a solution of low concentration soda. After drinking a liter of liquid, you should induce vomiting. So it is necessary to make several times with an interval per hour. In addition to the stomach, a large amount of methanol can accumulate in the intestine. Therefore, in parallel with the washing of the stomach is to do an enema or drink a laxative.
Cope with the poisoning of methanol, which got into the body in the form of vapor, much easier. It is enough simply to provide the victim with an influx of clean air. It's best to go outside, but you can just open the windows. Do not have to make sudden movements. Inhale air is both deep and shallow breaths. To reinsure, you can also carry out gastric lavage. Only in extreme cases, when the dose of methanol was critical, it is necessary to make artificial ventilation of the lungs.
If methanol is on the skin and burns, they should be rubbed with ethyl alcohol. It is also important to ensure good ventilation of the skin.
If the victim has convulsions, chills or loss of consciousness, you need to give him a horizontal position. Cover with a blanket and lift your head, with a pillow. It is best if a person lies on his side.
As an antidote, ethanol is often used to cope with methanol poisoning. It cleaves methanol and accelerates its removal from the body. Small doses of 40% ethanol( vodka) are taken every three hours.
If you have the first symptoms of poisoning, you should call a doctor!
That it is impossible to do
So, having figured out what to do with methanol poisoning, it is necessary to find out what can not be done in order not to harm the health of the victim. Do not need to independently treat yourself: all of the above methods are needed only to normalize a person's condition until an ambulance arrives. Take all kinds of medications that increase or lower the pressure, relieve the headache and fight other special symptoms, do not.
If the poisoning has occurred through the respiratory system, do not need to do enema. If methanol is on the skin, do not try to remove the pain with ointments and creams from burns. Give the affected antidote( ethanol) should be dosed, and only if the person is conscious. The dose should be read as follows: 1 gram of pure ethanol( 2.5 grams of vodka) per kilogram of body weight. Do any droppers at home is not desirable.
If there is no certainty that methanol is the cause of poisoning, it is better not to consume ethyl alcohol, as it can do much harm. If the victim is unconscious, you can not leave him alone. It should not lie on your stomach or back. In the first case, the access to air will be disrupted, in the second case, when vomiting can be choked.
When methanol poisoning must be very careful not to harm the victim. With very severe poisoning, even a lethal outcome is possible, so actions must be quick and decisive. Cope with methanol poisoning can, most importantly - to comply with all the above tips.
Recovery after poisoning
After the first aid was given, the injured person should be taken to hospital so that the specialists continue treatment. Treatment will consist of two stages: maintaining the body in a tone and restoring functions that have been disrupted. In complex poisoning, when a critical amount of methanol is ingested, blood purification is performed.
The rehabilitation program depends on which organs suffered the hardest. As a rule, the organs of vision are the worst. The treatment course includes the intake of vitamins, special exercises, and sometimes surgical intervention.
If methanol enters the body through the respiratory system and strikes the mucous membrane, a course of inhalation is performed. With the help of herbal preparations it is possible to heal and disinfect internal organs.
Whatever the poisoning, after it needs a general rehabilitation. It includes rest, taking vitamins, dieting, and so on.
No one is immune from methanol poisoning, and even a specialist can accidentally get a dose of methyl alcohol from low-quality food. Everyone is mistaken, remember at least the film "The Error of Engineer Cochin"( 1939).But those who are aware of this issue, can save their lives and the lives of others.