What is immunity? Congenital immunity, factors of innate immunity
When an alien object appears in the body to protect human health, immunity becomes. On how much it is developed, the risk of infection with infectious diseases depends. Thus, immunity is the ability of an organism to resist alien invasions.
The immune system is in close interaction with other systems in the human body. Therefore, for example, existing nerve or endocrine diseases will significantly reduce immunity, and low immunity, in turn, can put the whole organism in jeopardy.
The described body protection is divided into two types: immunity is congenital and acquired. Next, we will discuss in more detail their features and methods of action.
Congenital body protection
Every person is born with his protective functions, which constitute immunity. Innate immunity is inherited and accompanies a person all his life.
At birth, a child from a sterile mother's womb enters a new world for him, where he is immediately attacked by new and not at all friendly microorganisms that can seriously damage the baby's health. But he does not get sick right away. This is precisely what happens because in the fight against such microorganisms, the natural birth control is assisted by the natural innate immunity.
Every body struggles on its own for its internal security. The system of innate immunity is strong enough, but it directly depends on the heredity of a particular person.
Formation of body protection
Congenital immunity begins its formation when the child is in the womb. From the second month of pregnancy, particles are laid that will be responsible for the safety of the child. They are produced from stem cells, then they get into the spleen. These phagocytes are the cells of the innate immunity . They work individually and do not have clones. Their main function is to search for hostile objects in the body( antigens) and neutralize them.
The named process occurs by means of certain mechanisms of phagocytosis:
- The phagocyte moves to the antigen.
- Attached to it.
- The phagocyte membrane is activated.
- A particle is either drawn into a cage, and the edges of the membrane close above it, or is formed by pseudopodia enveloping it.
- The vacuole with a foreign particle enclosed therein contains lysosomes containing digestive enzymes.
- The antigen is destroyed and digested.
- The degradation products are thrown out of the cell.
In the body there are also cytokines - signaling molecules. When dangerous objects are detected, they cause phagocytes. Using cytokines, phagocytes can induce other phagocytic cells to help antigen and activate sleeping lymphocytes.
Protection in action
Immunity plays an important role in the body's resistance to infections. Innate immunity in such cases provides protection of the body by 60%.This happens with the help of the following mechanisms:
- presence in the body of natural barriers: mucous membranes, skin, sebaceous glands, etc.;
- liver function;
- functioning of the so-called complement system, consisting of 20 proteins synthesized by the liver;
- interferon, NK cells, NKT cells;
- of anti-inflammatory cytokines;
- of natural antibodies;
- antimicrobial peptides.
The inherited ability to destroy foreign substances, as a rule, is the first line of protection of human health. Mechanisms of innate immunity have such a feature, as the presence of effects that quickly ensure the destruction of the pathogen, without preparatory stages. Mucous membranes secrete mucus, which hinders the possible attachment of microorganisms, and the movement of cilia cleans the respiratory tract from foreign particles.
Congenital immunity does not change, it is controlled by genes and inherited. NK cells( the so-called natural killers) of innate protection kill pathogens formed in the body - these can be carriers of the virus or tumor cells. If the number and activity of NK cells decreases, the disease begins to progress.
If innate immunity is present in a person from birth, the acquired one appears in the process of life. It can be of two types:
- Naturally obtained - formed in the process of life as a reaction to ingested antigens and pathogens.
- Artificially acquired - formed as a result of vaccination.
The antigen is administered by the vaccine, and the body responds to its presence. Having recognized the "enemy", the body produces antibodies for its elimination. In addition, for a while this antigen remains in the cell memory, and in case of its new invasion it will also be destroyed.
Thus, there is an "immunological memory" in the body. Acquired immunity can be "sterile," that is, persist for life, but in most cases it exists as long as there is a harmful agent in the body.
Principles of protection of congenital and acquired immunity
Principles of protection have one direction - the destruction of malicious objects. But at the same time innate immunity fights dangerous particles with inflammation and phagocytosis, and acquired uses antibodies and immune lymphocytes.
These two protections work interconnected. The compliment system is the mediator between them, with the help of which the continuity of the immune response is ensured. Thus, NK cells are a part of innate immunity, while they produce cytokines, which in turn regulate the function of T-lymphocytes related to the acquired.
Enhancement of the protective properties of
Acquired immunity, innate immunity - all this is a single interconnected system, which means that an integrated approach is needed to strengthen it. It is necessary to take care of the body as a whole, this is facilitated by:
- sufficient physical activity;
- proper nutrition;
- favorable environment;
- intake of vitamins;
- frequent airing of the room and maintaining a favorable temperature and humidity in it.
Nutrition also plays an important role in the effectiveness of the immune system. To make it work clearly, the ration should include:
- vegetables and fruits;
- sour-milk products;
- green tea;
From what has been said above it is clear that for a normal life of a person a well-developed immunity is necessary. Innate immunity and acquired functions are interrelated and help the body get rid of harmful particles that have penetrated into it. And for their quality work, it is necessary to abandon bad habits and adhere to a healthy lifestyle so as not to disrupt the vital functions of "useful" cells.