Blood donation: benefit and harm. Where and how to donate blood
Donation of blood and its components is an exclusively voluntary blood donation by a person, as well as various activities that are aimed at ensuring and organizing the safety of the procurement of the material taken. It should be specially noted that such practice began to be actively used in the war years. On how to donate blood for donation, whether it is safe or not, you will learn from the materials of the article.
What is it for?
Blood donation is common in almost all countries. It is taken away for educational and research purposes, for the production of medicines and medical devices. Clinical use of such material and its components is associated with transfusion to a patient for medical purposes, as well as for creating stocks that may be required in emergency cases.
Why not use substitutes?
Even with the development of technology and scientific discoveries, blood donation does not lose its relevance. After all, its artificial substitutes are toxic, have many side effects, are unjustifiably expensive, and also are unable to completely reproduce all the functions of this material in the body. In this regard, donor blood is indispensable for transfusions to victims of various injuries and burns, during complex operations, as well as in difficult childbirth.
It should be specially noted that the stocks of such material are vitally important for patients with anemia, hemophilia and oncological patients with chemotherapy. According to statistics, every third inhabitant of our planet needed a donor blood at least once in his life. One can not ignore the fact that in our country there is a catastrophically shortage of blood products and its components( domestic production).That is why it was decided to open a federal program "Blood Service", which calls residents of Russia to donated donations.
Emblem in different countries
Blood donation is donated in almost all countries of the world. Moreover, in some of them there is even a corresponding emblem. So, in the countries of Scandinavia the image of a pelican with drops of blood is used. A bird tearing its breast to feed the chicks symbolizes selfless love. Christian authors often compared this animal to Jesus Christ, who sacrificed himself to save all people.
Blood donation is not required. However, everyone is called to such a procedure. Not so long ago, it was decided to announce June 14 as World Donor Day. This day was chosen and established by three organizations that advocate for donated and voluntary blood donation. These include the International Federation of the Red Cross Society, the International Blood Transfusion Society and the International Federation of Blood Donor Organizations.
It should also be noted that in Russia the National Day of the donor is celebrated on April 20.
Types of donation
Blood donation, the benefit and harm of which has long been known to all, involves the collection of blood. However, the material of this or that person can be taken for different purposes. Consider the types of donation in more detail.
Autonomy. This is the preparation of the patient's own blood before a subsequent planned surgical operation. As is known, transfusion of a foreign material is a stress for any organism. But using your own allows you to minimize all the side effects.
Whole blood donation. This collection of material involves subsequent resuspension in a preservative solution, as a result of which the blood is divided into components, processed or poured. Donor plasmapheresis. This blood donation occurs manually or automatically. With manual plasmapheresis, the material is taken in a special sterile bag. Further, it is centrifuged, divided into plasma and erythrocytic mass( using a plasma extractor), after which the latter is returned to the donor. At the same time, the volume of circulating blood is replenished with an adequate amount of saline.
With automatic human plasmapheresis connect to the separator. Blood during this procedure is taken completely. Then it is divided into shaped elements and plasma, after which the first return to the donor. A similar method is used to purify blood.Donor Thrombocytopaheresis. Such a fence is carried out using a special apparatus. The donor's blood releases a platelet mass. As is known, it is extremely necessary for chemotherapy of cancer patients and for other abnormalities accompanied by thrombocytopenia. The preparation of platelets is quite expensive. That's why only those people who have repeatedly donated the material in such a way are invited to such blood donation. After all, in this case, the specialists have complete confidence that they do not have vector-borne infections.
Donor granulocyte aeration( or leukocytapheresis). Patients with severe infectious complications are extremely important for granulocytes, which are a kind of leukocytes. The procedure for their delivery is similar to that of platelets. It should be noted that transfusion of granulocytes is usually carried out within a few hours after their withdrawal from the donor.
Donation of immune plasma. Voluntary donation of blood in this way means the immunization of a person with a safe strain of an infectious agent. Plasma, which is subsequently taken away from such a donor, contains antibodies to the pathogen and can be used for the manufacture of drugs. In some cases, the material is poured into the weakened patient in its pure form as a component of polyvalent therapy or for prophylactic purposes. Donor erythrocytapheresis. The erythrocyte mass obtained in this way is extremely necessary for patients with anemia and other abnormalities accompanied by a decrease in blood formation and a low level of hemoglobin. Manual sampling is similar to plasmapheresis. The only difference is that with erythrocytapheresis, all the remaining components of the blood return to the donor's body, in addition to the erythrocyte mass. That is why the filling of its volume does not require the introduction of saline solution.
Basic requirements, rights and obligations of the donor
How to donate blood for blood, almost everyone knows. However, by no means all know the requirements that are imposed on such people.
A blood donor can only be a capable person who has reached the age of 18 years. Such a person must be a citizen of the Russian Federation or reside on its territory( legally) for at least 1 year. The donor should express a voluntary desire to become one, to undergo a medical examination, which will not reveal any contraindications for the delivery of the material.
Before donating blood, a person is obliged:
- to show a passport or another document proving identity;
- undergo a medical examination;
- to provide all information about the transmitted infectious diseases, contacts with infectious patients, about the use of narcotic and psychotropic substances, about staying in the territory where there was a threat of occurrence or spread of epidemics( mass infectious diseases), work with dangerous or harmful working conditions,as well as any vaccinations and surgical operations that were performed during the year prior to the immediate delivery of blood.
What are the conditions for donating blood?
Not only gratuitous donation of material is very popular among modern people, but blood donation for money. However, in any case, before such a procedure, a person must register, fill out a questionnaire, and also undergo a medical examination. Thus, the donor should donate blood for the analysis of hemoglobin( taken from the finger), then visit the transfusiologist. All these activities take place directly at the donor site and do not take a lot of time.
For the delivery of whole blood every six months, the volunteer should undergo a second analysis. If a person is not on the point, his blood is destroyed. When submitting the material more than three times within 1 year, the donor needs to make an ECG with a transcript, a chest fluorography, pass urine and blood for analysis, and get a certificate from an infectious disease specialist who will confirm the absence of contact with infectious patients and patients with hepatitis. Representatives of the weaker sex should be examined by a gynecologist.
Blood donation: use and harm
Correctly made material intake never harms the donor, and even helps him. Saving someone's life, a volunteer does good not only to another person, but to himself. This is expressed in the following:
- When the material is collected, the function of the hematopoiesis begins to become noticeably more active, resulting in self-renewal of the blood. After all, it's not in vain that bloodletting was used very often in the Middle Ages to treat some deviations.
- The use of blood donation is also due to the fact that as a result of such procedures, the spleen and liver are significantly unloaded in humans. After all, part of their functions is the utilization of dead red blood cells.
- The human body begins to develop a marked immunity even to a small blood loss.
- Blood sampling is a kind of prophylaxis of diseases of the digestive system, cardiovascular system, etc.
What can harm donorship?
Why do some people find it dangerous for themselves such an event as blood donation? Harm from this procedure can actually take place, but only if it was not done correctly. However, in the donor centers only professionals who exclude such an opportunity work.
It should also be noted that contamination of the volunteer during blood donation is unlikely, because:
- the site of the injection is disinfected with alcohol or with a special solution;
- blood sampling is performed using a new system that is unpacked directly at the donor;
- in the case of selection of any individual components of blood, its residue is poured back through the same system;while a volunteer can easily verify that only his data are available on the tank.
Despite all of the above, the risk of infection still remains. However, this can happen only with direct blood transfusion. Although such a measure is only in special cases, when there are no conditions or time for carrying out all the necessary preparatory measures.
Contraindications to donation
Depending on the operations and diseases that have been carried out, a person may not be allowed to donate blood( permanently or temporarily).
Temporary contraindications include ear piercing, tattooing, grafting, some infectious diseases( ARI, ARVI), surgeries, including abortions, lactation and pregnancy. To donate blood for such cases, you should wait for 3 or more months.
Constant contraindications include the presence of AIDS, viral hepatitis, acquired or congenital syphilis, HIV infection, eczema, generalized psoriasis, complete blindness, complete absence of speech and hearing, drug addiction, malignant neoplasms, alcoholism, surgical interventions for transplantation or resectionany organs and tissues.
Recommendations to donors of
Before donating blood directly to donors, it is not recommended:
- to consume alcoholic beverages in less than 2 days;
- to give blood on an empty stomach( in the morning it is desirable to eat carbohydrate, but low-fat breakfast);
- to eat fat, spicy, fried, smoked, butter, dairy products and eggs the previous evening;
- to smoke less than 1 hour before the procedure;
- take the drug "Aspirin" and analgesics, as well as any medicines containing them( 72 hours before the procedure);
- donate blood for malaise, headache, chills, dizziness, or weakness.
After the procedure, the donor should refrain from heavy physical exertion. Within 2 days after the delivery of blood it is required to eat fully, and also to drink at least 2 liters of liquid per day( tea, juice and water).To restore pressure, a volunteer needs to use foods such as coffee, chocolate and hematogen.
Restrictions to donors
As is known, blood donation leads to a significant loss of fluid in the human body, as well as to a decrease in pressure. In connection with this, the following restrictions were imposed on donors:
- The representatives of the stronger sex are allowed to take whole blood not more than 5 times a year, while for women - not more than 4 times in 12 months.
- According to the current rules in our country, you can donate whole blood only once every 2 months.
- Re-delivery of plasma is carried out only after 14 days.
- After taking whole blood, it is only possible to take plasma for a month.
- It is not allowed to donate blood after a sleepless night.
- Volunteer should not weigh less than 45 kg. The body temperature before delivery of blood should not be above 37 ° C, and the pressure - from 80 to 160 mm Hg. Art.and from 70 to 100 mm Hg. Art.respectively. The heart rate of the donor should be about 55-100 beats per minute.
- It is not possible for female representatives to take whole blood during menstruation or seven days before their onset, and also within a week after. In addition, women are not allowed to become donors during lactation and pregnancy.
Where does blood donate? If you do not have any contraindications to the delivery of your material, then you should contact the nearest donor point. As a rule, they are available in every city of the Russian Federation.