Bullous dermatitis: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

If blisters of different sizes with fluid inside have appeared in the redness of the skin, which can be either transparent or cloudy, doctors say that a disease such as bullous dermatitis occurs. As a rule, the ailment is inflammatory. He has in the people the usual names: frostbite, allergy, burn.

bullous dermatitis

Description of the pathology

Bullous dermatitis is a skin inflammatory disease. It manifests itself in the form of bubbles on the skin, filled with liquid. In most cases, the cause of such a disease is careless contact with any stimulus( chemical, biological, physical).The ailment can cause other causes: internal pathologies, genetic abnormalities.

This pathology is often a secondary sign of other diseases. For example, infectious or severe congenital ailments. Successful treatment is impossible without an accurate definition of the causes that caused the disease.

The main factors of the onset of the pathology

Bullous dermatitis can be caused by both internal and external causes. Consider them.

The external factors most often include:

  • temperature changes;
  • exposure to ultraviolet radiation;
  • irritation from various chemicals;
  • is allergic to plants.

Internal are:

  • violation of metabolic processes in the body;
  • complications of dermatoses;
  • genetic abnormalities;
  • various viral diseases.

The appearance of bullous dermatitis can also affect any disruption in the endocrine system. Often, pathology provokes diabetes mellitus or a thyroid problem.

But sometimes even doctors can not pinpoint the cause of the pathology. Until now, it is not known what causes herpetiform bullosa dermatitis.

bullous dermatitis treatment

The main reasons for the appearance of this chronic skin lesion include:

  • gluten intolerance;
  • ascaridosis;
  • sensitivity of the body to iodine;
  • viral diseases;
  • disturbed functioning of the digestive tract.

Characteristic symptoms of

On careful examination of bullous dermatitis, it is possible to see bubbles formed on the patient's skin filled with liquid. They are the main symptom of the disease in question.

Symptoms of ailment may vary. For example, herpetiform bullous dermatitis is characterized by severe burning and itching.

Symptoms of the disease most often depend on what factors triggered the disease. Therefore, it is worth considering the most common varieties of the disease in more detail.

The main types of

herpetiform bullous dermatitis

The most common varieties are:

  1. Cold dermatitis. It develops due to frostbite of the skin surface. It is accompanied by vasospasms. Later, the skin begins to blush, bother with a feeling of pain and burning. Then bubbles appear, filled with blood or muddy content. If you uncover them, then the skin will remain eroded, which in the future will be covered with a crust. With dermatitis caused by not lowered, but high temperatures, the clinical picture is actually the same. But the bubbles are formed almost instantly. Bullous dermatitis characterizes burns and frostbite of a serious stage. As a rule, this is damage of the 2nd degree.
  2. Solar dermatitis. With this form, rashes appear after prolonged exposure to scorching rays. The skin on the open areas of the body turns red, inflames. Bubbles of different diameters filled with liquid appear on it. After they are opened on the skin there are wet erosions. Manifestations of solar dermatitis are accompanied by a general deterioration of the condition. The temperature rises, itching, burning. There are painful sensations in the places of damage.
  3. Chemical dermatitis. Symptoms of this pathology initially appear on those parts of the skin that are directly in contact with the harmful substance. Later, the rash may spread to other areas. Sometimes it even covers the entire body, including the neck and eyes. In some severe cases, swelling can interfere with normal vision work and carry a serious risk to the patient's life.
  4. Hereditary. Recognized and diagnosed such bullous dermatitis in children immediately after birth. An example is the Hailey-Haley disease. The patient develops characteristic blisters on the skin, even with minor bumps and injuries.
  5. Metabolic dermatitis. Appears as a result of disruption of the endocrine system and improper metabolism. For example, diabetes can cause diabetic dermatitis. It is manifested by watery blisters on the hands and feet. Due to the lack of zinc in the body, enteropathic acrodermitis can develop. Pathology is accompanied by the formation of vesicles on the lips, extremities and, possibly, the oral cavity.
  6. Bullous exfoliative dermatitis. Characteristic for newborns. This is a rather severe form of the disease that occurs from the first days of the baby's life. Bubbles are filled with gray liquid. Their size increases rapidly, and they themselves spread throughout the body. After the opening of such blisters, large erosions remain. With bullous exfoliative dermatitis, the general condition of the child worsens: fever, dyspeptic disorders are possible. In especially severe cases, sepsis occurs. Even death is not excluded.

bullous dermatitis in children

How to diagnose the disease

The doctor first examines the skin. The doctor should evaluate the emerging bubbles: their size, color, fullness, quantity and localization.

Various clinical and laboratory studies are used to differentiate the pathology:

  1. The liquid in the vials is thoroughly examined under a microscope.
  2. Immunofluorescence helps diagnose allergic bullous dermatitis. Such pathology can arise as a result of various provocateurs. The appearance of blisters is a rather characteristic symptomatology of allergy.
  3. The most accurate and voluminous method of diagnosing a disease is biopsy.
  4. If dermatitis is hereditary, then the best way to determine it is electron microscopy.

Treatment methods

Each type of bullous dermatitis requires its approach to therapy.

allergic bullous dermatitis

However, we can distinguish such basic steps:

  1. Drying. The skin is treated with a special substance( manganese, hydrogen peroxide, zelenka) to heal blisters.
  2. Autopsy. Drying does not apply to large bubbles. They just need to be opened. But this should be done only by a doctor.
  3. Processing. Erosions created on the ground require special care. In places of severe damage, regular dressings and drug treatment are necessary.

Medication therapy

Do not forget that only a doctor can prescribe if treatment of bullous dermatitis is diagnosed.

Complex therapy of pathology most often includes such drugs:

  1. Non-hormonal local remedies: "Zinokap", "Skin-cap", "Radevit".
  2. Antihistamines: Telfast, Zirtek, Claritin, Cetrin.
  3. Hormonal local medications: "Advantan", "Triderm", "Celestoderm".
  4. Corticosteroids: Prednisolone, Triamycinolone.
  5. Antibacterial and antifungal local remedies: Futsidin, Levomecol, Exoderil.
  6. Sedative medicines: "Phenazepam", "Sedasen", "Persen".
  7. Immunosuppressive drugs: Methotrexate, Azathioprine.

bullous exfoliative dermatitis

If blisters develop on the skin, then do not risk your health and neglect your doctor's examination. Timely diagnosis and treatment will protect against serious disorders in the body.