Where is the wisdom tooth, features of the structure and indications for removal
The adult has 32 teeth, but not all appear in childhood. Four of them are erupted not earlier than 17 years. Often this process is accompanied by severe pain. But many do not notice him and do not even know where the wisdom tooth is. These last molars, which are outwardly indistinguishable from neighboring teeth, actually have some peculiarities.
Explanation of the name
Even those people who know well where the wisdom tooth is, often do not understand why it is so called. It is believed that this is due to the fact that he appears at the age when a person already possesses some worldly wisdom. They are cut by each person in different ways, which confirms this theory. Usually it happens in 17-20 years, but they can appear in 30, and even in 40 years.
In ancient times it was believed that these teeth grow only in someone who has already acquired the meaning of life and reached psychological maturity. Therefore, in folk medicine, it was believed that they can not be removed.
Where the wisdom tooth of a person is located
A photo of a healthy jaw of an adult shows that these molars do not externally differ from neighboring teeth. They are located at the very end of the dentition and among dentists are often called "eight".These are the same molars with a large chewing surface, like the sixth and the seventh.
This is how all teeth are numbered: on each jaw from the middle there are 8 teeth. It turns out, that it is easy to find out how many teeth of wisdom should be in an adult. One each on the upper and lower jaws on each side - a total of four. If any of them do not exist, it means that they have not cut through yet, or some problems have arisen in its development. Sometimes a person does not even have the rudiments of one or more of these molars. This can be caused by a hereditary predisposition or features of the development of the jaws.
It is quite difficult to determine on your own where the wisdom tooth is located. The photo of the jaw, which can be found in the article, shows that it is located from the very edge. But in the mirror it is difficult to see, and it is almost impossible to feel the language. Therefore, you can avoid problems only with regular visits to the dentist.
The structure of wisdom tooth
All human teeth differ from each other in structure and functions. In front are single-root teeth - incisors and canines. They are designed to nibble food. On the sides - premolars and molars with wide chewing surfaces. They are mostly multi-rooted. So is the wisdom tooth. It belongs to molars, and its structure does not externally differ from other similar teeth.
Differences are in the features of the roots. They can be from 2 to 5, which is not characteristic for other molars. If at removal one root of wisdom tooth is found out, then they have fused together, which happens quite often.
In the past, people did not even think about where the human wisdom tooth is located. He was one of 32 teeth and performed the same functions as others. Then chewing food required a lot of effort, so he was actively involved in that process. But over time, the food became softer, and the eighth molars began to be considered as vestiges of the past. Therefore, they often cause serious problems, because of which they have to delete them.
But many dentists point out that pathologies are caused by the fact that the jaw of a modern man has decreased, because he has to chew less hard food, which became due to heat treatment softer. And knowing where the wisdom tooth is, one can understand that he often simply does not have room for eruption.
Usually by the age of 12, a person has already had all 28 molars. And the eight at this age are just forming. They begin to erupt no earlier than 17 years. This process can last a very long time, alternately slowing down, then accelerating. Even after this tooth has completely erupted, its roots continue to form for several more years. It turns out that it grows about 10 years, and sometimes more.
Another feature of the figure eight is that it appears without the preceding milk teeth. Therefore, he has to make his way through the jaw bone himself. Because of this, often on the spot where the wisdom tooth erupts, there is severe pain and inflammation.
Teething wisdom tooth
Almost all teeth appear in a person as a child. Parents of kids know what problems this process can accompany. And knowing where the wisdom tooth is located, a person can take action when the redness and itching of the gums appear in this place. It is better to turn to the dentist in time and prevent complications. And the process of erupting these molars is very often accompanied by pain. In particularly difficult cases, severe inflammation may occur.
Problems in erupting
If a person has formed all four rudiments of eighth molars, this does not mean that they will all break through. They can remain in the thickness of the jaw for various reasons. At the same time, dentists distinguish several varieties of such pathology.
Retinished wisdom tooth occurs most often. This occurs when it does not appear completely, part of it is covered by the jaw bone or gum. The reasons for this pathology may be its incorrect position, when the direction of its growth rests against adjacent teeth or cheek. Sometimes he also does not have enough room in the dentition. Despite the fact that it is not visible, it is still a full tooth, subject to the same diseases as the rest.
With prolonged eruption, when for several months, or even years, the gum is injured, pericoronaritis - inflammation of the mucosa develops.
If the eight starts to grow, but not upwards, as needed, but aside, such pathologies can arise:
- when it rests on the adjacent tooth, it causes its destruction, development of caries or periodontitis;
- if the figure eight grows towards the cheek, a mucosa forms on the mucosa, which can develop into a cancerous tumor;
- with the back of the tooth must be removed, otherwise serious complications may arise due to the formation of a hood from the gum and its inflammation;
- if it touches the tongue, it causes it to be traumatized and inflamed.
Diseases of these teeth
Features of the placement of eights, lack of space in the dentition, as well as chronic calcium deficiency, characteristic of modern people, leads to the appearance of a variety of pathologies in the development of these teeth. They are most susceptible to such diseases:
- as a result of the complexity of their purification they often form tartar;
- for the same reason they are prone to tooth decay, which can appear immediately after eruption;
- if the caries is not treated in time, pulpitis or periodontitis develops;
- as a result of the fact that the wisdom tooth has to break through the firm gum tissue, often there is a strong inflammation, accompanied by general intoxication, weakness, fever;
- if the upper tooth is subjected to destruction, it can infect the maxillary cavity, which will lead to the development of sinusitis;
- pericoronaritis is a powerful inflammatory process of the soft tissues of the mucosa.
Do I need to remove them
Do modern people need wisdom teeth? This question is of interest to many, especially those who are confronted with their pathologies. They believe that it is worth removing these molars immediately, as soon as they erupted, because without them it is easy to do without. The same opinion exists among foreign dentists. They try to remove wisdom teeth at once, as there are some problems. But there is another point of view. Russian doctors try to treat the pathology of these teeth, removing them only if necessary:
- if they are incorrectly located and grow to the side;
- if they caused inflammation or damage to surrounding tissues;
- when it is impossible to treat caries due to curved roots or difficulties in accessing them;
- if there is a fistula, abscess or cyst;
- when pericoronaritis or osteomyelitis develops.
How to remove the wisdom tooth
This procedure is usually more difficult than removing other teeth. This state is explained by the deep arrangement of the figure-eight. It is also difficult to pull a molar often because it has several roots, and they can be curved, often even in the form of hooks. This is especially dangerous when the figure eight is located in the upper jaw. Roots during removal can damage the maxillary cavity.
Wisdom tooth extraction is performed with mandatory anesthesia. Modern drugs make this process completely painless. Pain may appear later, after the end of the drug, especially if the procedure was complicated. It can last for several days, and even accompanied by a rise in temperature. Full healing of the hole usually occurs in a few months, although this place is painful for no more than 2 weeks.
When it is not necessary to delete them
But not always this way it is necessary to solve the arisen problems. Doctors try to cure this molar if there are no teeth next to him. Then a separate wisdom tooth will be the basis for prosthetics. If he only erupts, he can gradually move and take the place of the missing tooth.
There are also contraindications, in which it is worth to refuse to remove completely or temporarily:
- is a strong inflammatory process in the oral cavity;
- acute infectious diseases;
- pathology of the cardiovascular system;
- mental illness.
How to relieve pain
Pain sensations from teething wisdom are usually very strong. Pain can spread to the entire jaw, because during growth, it moves adjacent teeth, causing compression of nerve endings. This is due to the fact that the eight does not have enough space, he is forced to erupt, shifting adjacent teeth. In addition, it breaks through the bone tissue of the jaw and dense gum. With severe pain, it is recommended to take a tablet of "Analgin" or "Ketorol".You can not warm a sore spot or put on the gum various medications, especially if there is an inflammatory process.
Rinse your mouth with salt and soda, but it should be cool. You can also use for this purpose decoctions of sage, chamomile, lemon balm or oak bark. In the presence of inflammation, the gum can be lubricated with sea buckthorn oil. To facilitate the condition when the wisdom tooth is erupted, if this process is not accompanied by complications, it is recommended to use this solution: add a tablespoon of sea salt, 10 g of camphor alcohol and 100 ml of ammonia to a liter of cool water. The cotton wool soaked in such a solution is applied to the gum for 10 minutes.
If a person has to find out where the wisdom tooth is located, for the painful symptoms of eruption, it is better to see a doctor right away. Then you can avoid complications.