Hyperprolactinemia - what is it? How is hyperprolactinaemia manifested? Treatment

In medicine there is the concept of "hyperprolactinemia".It's not everyone who knows what this is and how it manifests itself. But recently such diagnosis is put ever more often. Therefore, it is important to know the symptoms of this disorder, the methods of treatment, as well as possible complications, so as not to miss the moment and turn to a qualified specialist in time.

hyperprolactinemia what is it

Features of the disease

Hyperprolactinemia - what is it, how does it manifest itself, how is it treated? This question arises in people who first hear such a definition. Hyperprolactinemia is a condition characterized by an elevated level of the prolactin hormone in the blood. Prolactin produces endocrine gland of the pituitary gland, which is considered the "head" of the full work of the endocrine system. His duties include regulating the functioning of:

  • thyroid;
  • of testes and ovaries;
  • of the adrenal glands.

This responsibility of the pituitary gland lies in the fact that it, in addition to prolactin, produces hormones of LH and FSH.

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hyperprolactinemia in women

The role of prolactin in the body

This hormone is responsible for reproduction. Prolactin promotes growth and development of mammary glands. Its main task is to stimulate the formation of milk from a woman who gave birth. In the body of a man, this hormone is produced in less quantity.

Prolactin together with other hormones( LH, FSH) in the body of a woman stimulates the formation of estrogens, which are responsible for the full maturation of the egg. They depend on the stability of the menstrual cycle, the probability of conception. If we talk about men, then thanks to these hormones, testosterone is produced. Even sperm motility depends on prolactin.

hyperprolactinemia symptoms

Classification of

Depending on the factors that provoked the development of hyperprolactinemia, it is customary in medicine to divide this state into species:

1. Physiological. The level of prolactin is increased because of normal processes in the human body. Diagnose in newborns, pregnant and lactating women.

2. Pathological. The reason lies in a certain pathology. But, as practice shows, the most often causes hyperprolactinemia is a pituitary tumor.

3. Pharmacological. This condition is associated with taking medications, drugs.

4. Idiopathic. The level of the hormone increases for unknown reasons.

Pathogenesis of

Physiological hyperprolactinemia arises from natural processes that occur in the human body on a daily basis. It provokes:

1. Pregnancy period. At women closer to 7 weeks of pregnancy the level of prolactin increases. This process continues throughout the 9 months, but after childbirth( in 1-2 months) all the indicators come back to normal.

hyperprolactinaemia in women

2. Sleep. When a person falls asleep, an hour later in his blood, the level of prolactin rises, but after waking up sharply falls.

3. Stressful situation. Stress is the factor that provokes violations in the body, including the release of more hormones. In the case of prolactin, a stressful situation must be accompanied by a sharp decrease in blood pressure, an unconscious condition.

4. Physiological hyperprolactinemia in women occurs during sexual intercourse, any stimulation of the mammary gland( especially during the feeding of the baby).

5. The use of protein foods.

6. Any effects on the body that cause pain.

Pathological hyperprolactinemia provokes:

1. Diseases of the hypothalamus, pituitary( considered the most common cause of this type).

2. Disturbances in the hormonal background.

3. The received trauma of a thorax.

4. Frequent curettage of the uterine cavity.

5. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

6. Problems with the liver.

7. Renal failure.

8. Lupus Erythematosus.

Pharmacological occurs due to the administration of:

  • antidepressants;
  • contraceptives;
  • antihypertensives;
  • antipsychotics.

Symptoms of

Hyperprolactinaemia in men manifests itself as follows:

  • decreased potency;
  • lactorrhea( allocation of colostrum or milk from the nipple);
  • psychoemotional instability;
  • infertility;
  • with osteoporosis;
  • obesity;
  • decreased severity of secondary sexual characteristics.

Hyperprolactinemia manifests itself in all different ways. Symptoms in women:

  • menstrual cycle disorder;
  • galactorrhea;
  • infertility;
  • decreased libido;
  • discomfort during intercourse due to lack of lubrication;
  • anorgasmia;
  • acne;
  • seborrhea of ​​the scalp;
  • apoplexy;
  • a woman acquires masculine features, her clitoris is hypertrophied, hair grows all over her body. What is special about hyperprolactinaemia? Symptoms can be either single or combined with each other. The intensity of the signs is also different. For example, galactorrhea, which occurs in 80% of women with hyperprolactinaemia, manifests itself as insignificant discharge from the nipple with intensive pressure in some patients, while in others provokes a sudden abundant discharge.

    Mental manifestations

    The syndrome of hyperprolactinemia( another name for this condition) causes a person to have insomnia, memory problems. The work capacity is significantly reduced, although there is no apparent reason for this. Other mental manifestations are:

    • a constant sense of anxiety and fear;
    • mood swings;
    • irritability;
    • psychoses( sometimes such conditions are critical, requiring immediate specialist help);
    • in rare cases, "heartache"( the so-called spontaneous pain in the chest without an organic foundation).

    Children

    Sometimes a child is diagnosed with "hyperprolactinemia".What can it cause in the future? If we talk about the girl, then in adolescence she will have violations in puberty.

    Both boys and girls face problems with the formation of bone tissue. Bones will be weak and fragile.

    Survey

    What kind of examination does hyperprolactinaemia require? The reasons that were listed cause the need for such diagnostic methods:

    • blood test for prolactin level;
    • general analysis of urine and blood;
    • skeletal scintigraphy;
    • of ultrasound of the prostate;
    • in women with ultrasound of the breast, ovaries, uterus;
    • X-ray of the skull;
    • CT;
    • MRI.

    With a blood test for prolactin levels, you need to be very careful. For the accuracy of the indicators, it is given on the 5th-8th day of the menstrual cycle. Not always one analysis is enough to make a diagnosis. Hyperprolactinemia in women is often functional, therefore it is recommended to resort to this method of examination 3 times.

    Treatment of

    Pharmacological hyperprolactinemia does not cause particular difficulties. Treatment consists only in the cancellation of the drug( or its replacement), which caused the violation. The level of prolactin comes back to normal in a short period. If we talk about the physiological form, then it does not require any intervention.

    Drug Therapy

    Dopaminomimetic drugs are the basis for the treatment of hyperprolactinaemia. They act on the tumor, which provoked disturbances, reducing it. Sometimes it happens that the drugs help to get rid of it completely. Subsequently, the level of prolactin in the blood is normalized.

    hyperprolactinaemia in men

    Hypothyroidism requires the use of thyroid hormones. If the patient has hormonal disorders, the doctor writes out the appropriate hormonal drugs.

    Operation

    Surgical intervention is indicated in such cases:

    • apoplexy;
    • when drug therapy does not help or the patient does not receive the drugs needed;
    • deterioration from the side of neuralgia.

    Not always the operation gives the desired result. After it, hyperprolactinaemia returns in half the cases. The patient also faces complications:

    • during the operation, the optic nerve, the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus are damaged;
    • may cause a cerebral hemorrhage.

    Radiotherapy

    This treatment is used only in extreme cases. Radiation therapy takes a long time and requires patient patience, because the process can last a year and a half. After this method of treatment, a person can get a brain hemorrhage, radiation damage to the nerves, as well as necrosis of the brain.

    Folk methods

    Some doctors recommend their patients to take the recipes of traditional medicine. But this happens only after the cause of such a state is established.

    Popular methods:

    • several times a day to drink tea from mint and chamomile;
    • for the stability of the emotional state must be used valerian, motherwort, hawthorn, St. John's wort( can be found in the pharmacy).

    Folk methods are recommended as an addition to the main drug treatment.

    Complications of

    Hyperprolactinaemia, the symptoms of which have not been taken into account for a long time, leads to mastopathy or malignant growth in the mammary gland. Also, a woman is threatened with uterine hypoplasia.

    How does metabolism affect hyperprolactinaemia? What does this condition do with metabolism? As it turns out, an increased level of prolactin can cause:

    • atherosclerosis;
    • hypertension;
    • IHD;
    • osteoporosis;
    • urolithiasis;
    • of diabetes.

    Prevention

    hyperprolactinemia of the cause

    Exact instructions that would help prevent hyperprolactinemia, no. A person should avoid stressful situations, fully rest. An important role is played by a balanced diet, physical activity( exercise, regular walking tours).It is necessary to abandon bad habits - alcohol and smoking. Coffee and strong tea is undesirable to use in the diagnosis of "hyperprolactinemia."

    Symptoms in women, such as the discharge of milk from the nipple outside of pregnancy, irregular menstrual cycle, are not always alarming and become an excuse for consulting a doctor. But this is absolutely wrong! After all, such signs - a signal that there are violations in the body, which can not be closed. This applies to men. Therefore, you need to be more careful about your health and do not forget that any violations are justified and can cause dangerous complications.