Flattening: its causes and prevention in children. Prevention of flatfoot and impaired posture in preschool children. Prevention of flat feet in preschool children: Exercises
Parents are very happy about the first steps that their kid does. At the same time, they often forget that from this moment the legs of the child are under severe strain. The feet begin to form actively. From this time, prophylaxis of flat feet in preschool children should be started. It includes many activities, among which a special role is given to exercises. No less important for the proper development of foot shoes. The latter should be ergonomic and qualitative.
What is a flatfoot
Many people know first hand about this ailment. Unfortunately, this is a fairly common pathology, which in the advanced stage can lead even to disability. Therefore, doctors do not tire of repeating that the prevention and correction of flat feet in preschool children must necessarily be carried out.
So, what is this pathology? Flattening is one of the most frequent ailments of the musculoskeletal system in toddlers. The foot of the child with this disease is deformed. Its arch is flattened. The foot takes a flat shape. As a result, a person stands touching the floor with the entire surface.
It should be noted that the formation of the foot bones continues in a child up to the age of five. Therefore, the diagnosis of "flat feet" can be put to the baby only after this age. In earlier years, the foot is still developing. For example, at the age of two, the flat surface of the sole is considered the norm.
In rare cases, flat feet is diagnosed in infancy. It is a congenital pathology that is combined with a flat-foot deformity of the foot.
Symptoms of pathology in children
Parents should know that flatfoot prevention in pre-school children is necessary for all babies. Most moms and dads mistakenly believe that if the doctor did not tell them about this pathology, then it does not affect their child. But, unfortunately, the doctor is able to determine the ailment only in a 5-year-old child, when the foot is formed. And in this case serious treatment is required.
But if flatfoot prevention in children of preschool age is constantly carried out, even in crumbs prone to pathology, right feet are formed.
Parents can suspect the development of an illness on the following grounds:
- fast fatigue when walking;
- swelling in the area of the feet;
- aching pain in the legs;
- increased wide stop;
- rapid wear of the inner sides of heels and soles;
- violation of posture;
- club foot.
With this symptomatology, it is necessary to show the child to the orthopedist.
Factors provoking the development of the disease
Unfortunately, very often the children have flat feet. Its causes and prevention in children, to a greater extent, depend on the parents. After all, the disease often develops as a result of improperly selected footwear. Often the source of the problem is inactivity.
To protect the crumb from the development of flatfoot, you should familiarize yourself with the main factors leading to deformation:
- Wearing substandard shoes( without instep, soft, with a completely flat sole).
- Doing a sedentary lifestyle. Children in our time are more and more addicted to computer or tablet, instead of participating in various games on the street.
- Large load on the child's legs. They can occur, for example, with obesity.
- Rickets. The development of flat feet is associated with the fragility of bones, characteristic for this disease.
- Various foot injuries, mainly fractures.
- Muscle paralysis. Pathology develops after poliomyelitis.
Treatment of the disease
If platypodia is congenital, then the following is done to combat it:
- The mild form is cured by the application of gypsum. This allows you to fix the foot in the desired position. Plaster casts are applied for a week. Then change to new ones. Duration of treatment is about 10 weeks. After that, the child undergoes a course of physiotherapy. To him do massages and recommend to wearing orthopedic footwear, made on the individual order in the atelier. In addition, it should be determined that rehabilitation prophylaxis of flat feet in preschool children with this condition will take a long time.
- For the treatment of severe form, only surgical intervention is used.
Therapy of acquired flat feet lasts quite a long time. The treatment consists of the following activities:
- Daily exercises in physiotherapy that strengthen the muscles of the legs. During the exercises, a special massage mat is also used, the unevenness of which helps to strengthen the soles of the feet.
- Wearing orthopedic shoes. It should have a hard high back and a series of fasteners with which the foot is tightly fixed. Manufacture of such footwear only from natural materials. Be sure to make a small heel and insert insoles with insteps. Orthopedic shoes are sold in specialized outlets or are made to order in the direction of orthopedist.
- Massage. On the appointment of a doctor, they make courses for 10-15 sessions.
- Physiotherapy procedures are prescribed 2 times a year. Most often it is electrophoresis and electromyostimulation.
For proper formation of feet, special exercises should be performed. Gymnastics allows you to correct even the emerging deformation. It is on it that the prevention of flat feet in preschool children is based. Exercises that allow you to develop a foot will be offered by an orthopedist.
Gym itself is simple. Parents can easily do it themselves. And if you diversify it with games, then real enthusiasm will cause such prophylaxis of flat feet in preschool children.
Exercises in sitting position:
- Slowly bend and unbend fingers.
- Stroking. Conduct with the big toe on the lower leg of the other limb. Lead from the bottom up. Then do the same movement with the other foot. Exercise several times.
- The sole and inner part of the foot of one leg is carried along the shin of the other. It is also performed several times.
- Feet put on the floor, at right angles. Keeping his heels, raise the toes of the foot.
- Connect the soles of the feet. Keep in this position for a few minutes.
- Spread the heels to the sides. Keep the socks together.
- The soles of the soles of the feet.
- Take small objects with your toes. Then shift them.
- Walking, rolling from heel to toe. Try to tread on the whole foot.
- When walking, press and pull your toes.
- Select uneven surfaces. It is for them to walk. It can be pebbles, grass. Very useful massage mat.
- Roll from heels to socks. Then on the inner and outer parts of the foot.
- Squat, without lifting the heels off the floor.
- Stand alternately on the outer and inner sides of the foot.
In addition, do not forget that kids very quickly get tired of doing gymnastics. Therefore, the above complex of exercises for the prevention of flat feet in children must be diversified with elements of games.
Walking, jogging, and mobile activities are also recommended, which force all the leg muscles.
To maintain the normal development of the child's feet, physical activities and a proper diet are necessary.
How is prophylaxis of flat feet in pre-school children at home? There are many excellent methods.
Let's consider some recommendations of doctors:
- A toddler must move a lot, so it is not recommended to keep it wrapped in diapers all the time.
- For bathing, it is preferable to use a large bathtub where the child can move, making swimming movements.
- After taking water procedures, you need to do a light foot massage.
- Do not be afraid if the child walks barefoot in the summer on grass and sand. This positively affects the formation of the foot.
- The foot bath with sea salt works well. Prepare this procedure is very simple. A large bath is poured with water to cover the child's ankles. Dissolve in it sea salt, leaving a little crystals on the bottom. The baby should walk along the bottom of the bath, as in shallow water.
This is an excellent prophylaxis of flat feet in preschool children. Consultation of orthopedist will allow you to expand the list of medical measures that can be used at home.
They can be made by yourself or purchased in specialized stores. Massage mats are available with a variety of surfaces. Make them from natural materials.
It is recommended to use such mats from the moment when the child begins to take the first steps. This is a fairly effective prevention of flat feet in preschool children. The photo allows you to view how it is performed.
It is quite enough that the baby is like the surface of a massage mat for 5 minutes a day.
A very effective method of preventing flat feet. It is better if this procedure is performed by a professional masseur.
But if the parents want to conduct the event themselves, they should familiarize themselves with the method of carrying out:
- Before starting the procedure, warm up the body with gymnastics or take a contrast shower.
- Start massage from the top. Stretch the hips, then the calves and Achilles tendon.
- Massage the inner and outer sides of the foot.
- Go to the processing of the sole.
The duration of the massage is about a quarter of an hour.
Physical education in the preschool
In educational institutions, great attention is paid to flatfoot prevention. In kindergartens and schools, various walking options are practiced in physical education classes.
Prevention of flat feet in pre-school children in preschool age is most often the nature of the game. Specially designed complex of exercises, accompanied by reading poems. It is like to kids and brings to the game elements of the game.
Children are involved in exercise only if they are performed in a playful form.
That's why in kindergartens gymnastics is most often used, according to the type of the following complex:
The child sits on a gym bench, stretching his legs and leaning his heels on the floor. When the word "up" pulls the toes of the feet on themselves. Then he lowers the word "Down" to the floor.
Accompanied by a quatrain:
Ah, swings, ah, swings,
Directly to the sky flew,
Just hold on tight!
A child is sitting on a bench. The socks of the legs need to be spread apart. Then connect, performing a kind of clap.
We clap-clapped our hands,
And now our legs are working!
The child, sitting, resting his hands on the bench. The legs are stretched out. Pulls his limbs, leaning on his fingers. Then it returns to its original position, pointing the socks on itself.
Feet dance, as in ballet,
It's our children's dance,
Steel legs exhibit,
And stand on your fingers.
Press your toes and, sitting on the gym bench, beat the rhythm of the rhyme with your fingers:
Misha has a drum,
Rattles like a hurricane.
But when he was given,
That was silently asked.
But why then is it there,
If they can not rattle?
The child steps over the hoop or stick, with a step. In doing so, he grabs the gymnastic shell with his toes.
The spider creeps along the path,
Quickly it rearranges the legs.
The child is standing with his hands on his belt. He rolls the ball from toe to toe, changing legs.
The hedgehog runs along the path,
And we're massaging the legs!
The child is standing with his hands on his belt. He draws feet on the floor with figures - circles, squares.
There will be children to draw,
Today only legs!
Will stand the legs perform
The artist's plan!
The child, standing, raises his toes. Folds them and rests on the floor. Begins to move forward.
We will be shown our legs,
How to stamp the snail on the path!
Stand on your heels by lifting your socks. Then sink to the foot.
Enough to luxuriate in the crib,
We need to stretch our heels!
The child lies on his back and drives one foot over the other.
Painting the house is about time,
We called the painter!
But not with a brush, a bucket,
The master came to our house!
The element of the game in these exercises makes them simple to perform. The child remembers the rhymes and can then perform the mood according to their mood, even outside of physical training.
Classes with special equipment
It should be noted that caregivers provide for the prevention of flat feet and posture disorders in preschool children. After all, such ailments are very common in recent times with children. In addition, the deformation of the feet leads to a shift in the center of gravity. As a result, often a violation of posture develops.
Special equipment is required to perform this charging.
Prevention of flatfoot and impaired posture in preschool children implies the use of tracks:
- Zebra. Make it from a dense fabric with pockets into which various fillers are put. These can be pebbles, peas, small cones.
- Flower glade. On a piece of dense fabric sewn different objects - beads, buttons, bones from the account, plastic flowers.
- Winding path. Take a strip of dense fabric and sew on it, in the form of a snake, a rope with knotted knots.
- Obstacle bar. Foam cut into squares and sew with a cloth. On the squares are fixed objects that can stimulate the feet( pencils, caps from plastic bottles, rope, buttons).Foam poles are connected to each other.
What Parents Should Remember
To reduce the risk of developing pathology, prevention of posture and flatfoot disorders in children should begin with the first steps of the baby.
The following methods help:
- When the child is just starting to get up, holding on to the pedestal, it is necessary that he does it in the shoes. The latter should be made of natural materials and tightly fix the foot, due to the hard back. The use of recommended footwear prevents the wrong setting of the feet.
- Do not allow a child to wear shoes for older children. After all, they stumble, and can change the location of the foot.
- Hardening helps the body to be always toned. Accordingly, muscular activity is activated. And the good work of such tissues protects from the development of flat feet.
- Reception of contrasting trays for feet. Take two containers. Pour into one - water at a temperature of 40 degrees, in the other - in 33. The legs alternately lowered into basins with water, for 10 minutes. It should be borne in mind that this procedure can only be carried out when the child is healthy.
- Application of sea salt in foot baths, and bathing. If there is a possibility to take the child to the sea, it is necessary to do it. Salt has a tonic effect on muscles and blood vessels. Sea water, due to its density, can replace massage.
- Walking barefoot allows footsteps to receive a stimulating effect. Walk better on uneven surfaces. In the summer it is grass, pebbles, sand. In winter, to continue prevention, small items such as peas, flat buttons, beans can be scattered on the floor. Invite the crumbs to walk along them.
Such recommendations will protect the baby from serious pathology.