Share pneumonia: treatment and symptoms
Pneumonia is a disease that provokes the development of an inflammatory process in the lung tissue with a significant lesion of the respiratory departments. It can manifest itself or develop as a complication of other ailments. The patient is not contagious to others, the disease is not transmitted from person to person, but with all this there is an infectious breed.
Shared pneumonia is a severe infectious allergic lesion that seizes one or more sides of the lung. Often manifested by chills, pleural and headache, fever, sweating, general weakness, wet cough and shortness of breath.
The incidence of patients is quite high, among all those infected with pneumonia, 29.3% of cases occur. For this pathology, the defeat of half of the lung is characteristic and also the involvement of the pleura. Disease often sick adults, rarely children.
The causative agent is pneumococcus, to be more precise, its various strains, but other pathogenic bacteria: chlamydia, staphylococcus, mycoplasma, streptococcus and hemophilic rod are not excluded. In case of impossibility of revealing the cause of the disease, the diagnosis is set as "unspecified share pneumonia".It should be noted that the virus can be in the nasopharynx for a long time without manifestation. It is also remarkable that the disease often affects an absolutely healthy person, but under the influence of certain secondary factors.
- through the bronchi;
- is a hematogenous pathway.
The pathogenetic pattern of lobar pneumonia is described by immediate type hypersensitivity. In the respiratory tract, there are acute inflammatory changes in the parenchyma, and the disease is formed in one or many foci through the interalveolar pores of the Kona, and then considerably spreads through the tissues of the lung. Damage to lymphatic and small blood vessels leads to severe impairment of vascular permeability, as well as the formation of fibrinous exudate.
At the location of the dislocation is divided:
- is a lower-floor pneumonia;
- is a semi-annual;
- is an inter-sectoral one;
- the left-hand;
By the nature of the course:
- protracted - lasts more than four weeks, often with licked symptoms;
- acute - is formed quickly and actively develops.
- The ailment very rarely begins with a strong fever or fever.
- Patients with painful headaches, sweating and slight malaise, accompanied by weakness.
- Initially, dyspnea occurs, which then provokes the appearance of unpleasant sensations in the affected area, depending on the pleural condition in the chest and the breath. The pain is pronounced, has a clear localization, especially with an active inhalation. If you try to bend the case in the hearth of the problem, then the breathing becomes shallow and superficial.
- Croupous lobar pneumonia is accompanied by a strong cough and increased separation of sputum, but in the initial stages, inherent dryness can cause painful breaths.
- Fever is often absent in the elderly and in patients with a weak body.
- Sputum is excreted purulent-mucous, with rusty color and blood.
- There is a clear sense of lack of air, which can lead to problems with the cardiovascular system and blueing of the nasolabial triangle.
- High intoxication with lobar pneumonia leads to problems with sleep, neuralgic disorders, inability to move, agitation, and delusions and hallucinations, so these patients require constant care and monitoring.
- Jaundice on the skin, whites of the eyes and mucous membranes.
- Isolation of fluid into the cavity of the pleura, the appearance of signs of pleurisy.
- Aching in the joints and muscles.
- Reduced blood pressure.
- Intestinal problems.
Physicians assert that all the morphological changes taking place in the lungs can be conditionally divided into 4 stages.
- The stage of the tide at which microbial edema appears. It can develop due to the appearance of right-sided and left-sided lobar pneumonia or its focal shape. This period lasts only 1 day.
- Characterized by red curing, in which the entire lobe of the lung begins to manifest itself. It significantly increases in size and acquires an airless and loose form. On the pleura, there are pinpoint hemorrhages and grayish-white plaque.
- On the 4th to the sixth day of the disease, changes in the red color of the lung to gray occur. The tissues of the respiratory organs begin to become even firmer and at the same time looser. This stage of lobar pneumonia is called "gray curing".The alveoli are completely filled with exudate. It is formed from leukocytes of neutrophilic rock and filament fibrin particles.
- Only on day 9 the disease passes to the stage of resolution.
In most cases, the causative agents are various strains of pneumococcus, less often other microorganisms that enter the body in a variety of ways.
The development of focal and lobar pneumonia is closely related to the persistence of pneumococcus in the nasopharynx in a strong, healthy person and by the preliminary sensitization of the sick organism to its antigens.
The rapid onset of an illness can occur against a background of complete health and a lack of contact with patients.
Often croupous lobar pneumonia appears along with such diseases as:
- ARVI( acute respiratory viral infection) or influenza;
- COPD( chronic obstructive pulmonary disease);
- malignant neoplasms in the respiratory system.
The main factors are:
- long-term exposure to cold temperatures on the body;
- suffered severe injuries, most often the chest;
- bad habits, in the first place is smoking;
- lowering the resistance of the immune system;
- strong physical activity;
- emotional instability and the impact of stressful situations;
- poor microclimate;
- production hazards.
Shared pneumonia in children
The child's body is much weaker than that of an adult, so the course of the disease occurs even sharper and more suddenly. Throughout the time there is an extremely large unbreakable temperature. In the nasolabial triangle, in addition to blue, a herpetic rash can also form. Babies undergo severe muscle weakness and headache.
The main signs of the course of the disease are the same as in adults, although complications can leave their imprint on the nervous system, cause acute psychosis in the child during and after the illness, as well as serious brain activity disorders. This in the future can affect the development of the child.
The difficulties of early detection of an ailment in modern conditions are associated with a rather diverse clinical picture and a worn out symptom.
For the confirmation of left-sided or right-side lobar pneumonia, the doctor arranges the patient's questioning( presence of complaints, concomitant diseases, risk factors) and his physical examination. Suspicion of the disease involves the presence of signs such as severe fever symptoms of intoxication, coughing, shortness of breath, pleural pain, cyanosis of the tip of the nose and lips.
The main factors of the presence of the disease during the examination are:
- lag of the chest at the time of breathing on the side of the lesion;
- enhanced bronchophony and vocal tremor;
- presence of tachycardia, as well as more frequent shallow breathing;
- limited chest pain;
- perekutornaya dullness.
During auscultation, at the time of community-acquired lobar pneumonia, characteristic inspiratory crepitations are heard, as well as noise from pleural obstruction. Further, abnormal bronchial respiration, sonorous small bubbles or damp, wheezing may appear.
Important results for the confirmation of diagnosis are the results after radiography, which is done in 2 projections. It shows the intensification of the pulmonary pattern and at the beginning of the disease is not the structure of the root in the affected area. And also there are uniform segmental infiltration sites in the pulmonary fields after 4-6 days of lesion.
Laboratory tests of the patient's blood indicate the presence of leukocytosis with a shift of the formula to the left, and in very severe situations - leukopenia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and an increase in ESR( erythrocyte sedimentation rate).To detect the causative agent of a doctor, sputum culture is determined to determine the microflora with the detection of sensitivity to antibiotics.
Therapy of the disease is carried out only in the hospital, especially if it concerns children, with severe and mandatory bed rest. The use of antibiotics should be carried out immediately after the conclusion is established, without waiting for the results of the analysis to be obtained for the crop by sensitivity to the drugs. In addition, antipyretic and antiallergic drugs, immunostimulants and agents are also prescribed that help improve sputum discharge.
Treatment of lobar pneumonia should not take place without physiotherapeutic procedures, because due to them the patient's recovery improves. Sometimes patients are connected to the device of artificial ventilation, stabilize blood pressure, conduct bronchoscopy, oxygenobaroterapii and other useful procedures.
Rehabilitation after the disease is rather complicated, since most of the complications that can be obtained result in amputation of the part of the lung. To a large extent, it is based on folk methods and hardware procedures.
In order to defeat the disease, it is necessary to use the following treatment methods:
- UHF( ultrahigh-frequency therapy);
- drug electrophoresis;
- LFK( therapeutic physical culture);
- chest massage;
- medicinal inhalations.
As an auxiliary technique to treatment, unconventional methods are used. The most effective herbs for therapy are:
- leaves of young birch;
- chamomile and oregano;
- leaves of aloe;
- raisins and blueberries;
- buckwheat honey;
- thyme and thyme.
Fracture pneumonia is described by a huge number of serious problems, which in the future often lead to disability or fatal outcome.
- Acute respiratory failure can bind both to the disease itself and remain after irreversible changes that have occurred in lung tissue.
- The development of abscesses, namely purulent formations with the death of tissues, which are removed only surgically.
- Gangrene lung - purulent-putrefactive necrosis spreads very quickly.
- Empyema of the pleura - inflammation of the pleural sheets with fluid exudate between the lung membrane, which contains pus.
- Pleurisy is a lesion of the serous cover of internal organs.
- Various purulent complications at the time of infection in the blood: purulent pericarditis, meningitis, cerebral abscesses and other similar complications.
- Cardiac disorders, damage to the development of heart failure and the appearance of aortic valve.
Shared pneumonia is considered a dangerous and serious disease with a huge number of severe consequences and complications. Although a timely visit to the attending physician can avoid a lot of problems. This disease refers to diseases that are characterized by a bright and strong, but relatively short-lived flow, so if you observe all the necessary measures, it proceeds fairly quickly. The prognosis for a risk group is not very comforting, patients with immunodeficiency, elderly people and children under 5 suffer a bad illness, and the consequences are also serious.