Insulin "Actrapid": description of the preparation and composition
One of the most famous hypoglycemic drugs of short action is insulin "Actrapid".It is available as a solution for injection and is used for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well as for emergency care for hyperglycemia. Especially often it is used for insulin-dependent diabetes. Such patients need lifelong injections of insulin. To more effectively control the level of sugar in the blood, combine different types of this drug. And one of the drugs of choice is precisely "Actrapid" - a short insulin.
Characteristics of the preparation
Insulin "Actrapid NM Penfill" is a solution for injections. The drug consists of a human pancreatic hormone obtained by gene modification. In 1 ml of the solution contains 3.5 mg of insulin. In addition to it, glycerol, zinc chloride and special substances that create the desired level of acid-base balance are dissolved in water for injection. The drug is produced in special cartridges for a 3 ml syringe pen. This is an average single dose, but in some cases it is required to increase it.
In addition to this form of release there is insulin "Actrapid NM" in bottles of 10 ml. It also contains human soluble hormone obtained using genetic engineering techniques. There is also an analogue of the drug - "Aktrapil MS".It is used less often, since it is a neutral pig insulin.
The action of this drug
Insulin penetrates into cells and affects metabolic processes, improving the transport of glucose. Due to this, the absorbability of its tissues increases. Lipid metabolism is also stimulated and synthesis of glycogen in liver cells is increased. Insulin "Actrapid" refers to short-acting drugs. Its hypoglycemic effect can be different depending on the method and place of administration of the solution, dosage and characteristics of the patient's lifestyle. But most often the effect of the drug begins after 30 minutes and lasts up to 8 hours. The maximum effect is 2-3 hours after the administration of the solution. The highest rate of absorption is "Actrapid NM", especially if it is entered correctly. It is best to make an injection in the crease of the skin on the stomach, so the drug will quickly act.
Indications for use
The most commonly used insulin is "Actrapid" in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. People who must regularly, several times a day, administer this hormone, can combine the drug with others. Such short-acting insulin is administered before meals, but this is not the only treatment. It is necessary to apply 1-2 times a day long-acting insulin, which will adjust the sugar level throughout the day, regardless of meals.
Sometimes this drug is used to treat type 2 diabetes, but only as directed by a doctor. This is done if the patient's body does not take hypoglycemic therapy in tablets. In addition, for some categories of patients, this method of insulin administration is safer, for example, during pregnancy and lactation.
"Actrapid" starts to act almost immediately, so it is used when urgent conditions, when you need to quickly lower the sugar level. This is necessary, for example, with ketoacidosis or before surgery.
Contraindications and side effects of
Some patients have an individual intolerance to human insulin. Sometimes, there may also be an allergic reaction to other components of the drug. In these cases, another insulin is prescribed. Contraindicated use of the drug also in hypoglycemia. Therefore, before the introduction, it is necessary to check the blood sugar level. You can not use "Actrapid" for cancer of the pancreas - insuloma. It is not contraindicated the use of this drug for children, as well as for pregnant women.
With the use of insulin "Actrapid", there may be such side effects:
- , when a dose is too high, hypoglycemia develops;
- sometimes there are allergic reactions - a rash, hives, anaphylactic shock;
- sweating, tachycardia, headaches and nausea;
- weakness, decreased pressure and loss of consciousness;
- cases of development of peripheral neuropathy have been observed;
- at the beginning of treatment with this drug, a refractive error or the development of retinopathy is possible;
- it is sometimes possible the occurrence of local reactions at the injection site( redness and bruising);If the injection is done constantly in the same place, lipodystrophy develops.
Introduction of insulin "Actrapid"
The way of using this drug is subcutaneous injections, in some cases - intravenous. This requires special insulin syringes. They have a calibration, which allows you to measure the right amount of the drug. Often used a special syringe pen for insulin "Actrapid NM".In this way, the injection is more convenient. The injection should be done in the abdomen or shoulder area, only in the subcutaneous fold, avoiding intramuscular injection. Sometimes the injection is injected into the thigh or buttock, but in this case the drug is absorbed worse.
How correctly to introduce insulin "Actrapid"?The instruction describes this process in the following way:
- you need to type the right amount of solution into a syringe from the vial or insert the cartridge into a special syringe pen;
- with your left hand, hold the fold of the skin on the abdomen, thigh or shoulder with two fingers;
- stick the needle into the base of the fold at an angle of 45 degrees;
- slowly inject the solution under the skin;
- leave the needle for 5-6 seconds;
- gently pull it out, if the blood has flowed, you need to squeeze the injection site a little.
Insulin "Actrapid": instructions for use
Only the attending physician can determine the desired dosage and frequency of application of the drug. It depends on the speed of the carbohydrate metabolism of the patient, his lifestyle, the characteristics of nutrition and the need for insulin. On average, no more than 3 ml per day is required, but this figure may be greater in people with excess weight, with pregnancy or with tissue immunity. If the pancreas produces at least a small amount of insulin, it should be administered in smaller doses. The need for insulin also decreases with liver and kidney diseases.
Injections of "Actrapid" are done 2-3 times a day. If necessary, you can increase the frequency of application up to 5-6 times. Half an hour after the injection you need to eat or at least eat a meal containing carbohydrates.
It is possible to mix this remedy with long-acting drugs. For example, a combination is often used: insulin "Actrapid" - "Protafan".But only a doctor can choose an individual mode of glycemic control. If necessary, enter two insulin simultaneously they are typed in one syringe: first - "Actrapid", and then - long-acting insulin.
Special instructions for the use of the drug
To control the sugar level with Actrapid was effective, several rules for the use of this insulin should be observed:
- should constantly change the place of administration of the drug in order to avoid the development of lipodystrophy;
- patients with liver and kidney disorders need to reduce the dose of drug administration;
- to achieve a more rapid effect, the injection should be done in the subcutaneous fold on the abdomen;
- can not be used if it has lost transparency or if the package has been broken;
- after opening the vial the solution should be stored in the refrigerator without freezing, and it is necessary to use it for a month and a half;
- , you can not use "Actrapid" for an insulin pump;
- when switching to "Actrapid" from another drug, it is necessary that the doctor corrects the dose, at first it is important to regularly check the sugar level, since the symptoms of hypoglycemia become less noticeable.
What to do in case of hypoglycemia
In some cases, most often with an overdose, the patient develops hypoglycemia. It may appear if, after injection, the patient has not eaten or exhibited too much physical activity. This condition occurs suddenly. The patient experiences such symptoms:
- general decline of strength, drowsiness;
- nervousness, restlessness;
- strong appetite;
- movement coordination disorder.
The appearance of hypoglycemia is easy to notice. The first thing you need to do is eat something sweet. For this, diabetics always carry sweets, biscuits, sweet juice or a piece of sugar. If the patient's condition worsens, he has convulsions or fainting, it is necessary to inject glycogen. It is necessary to consult a doctor and adjust the dosage of "Actrapid" to prevent the development of hypoglycemia.
Sometimes, another condition is possible, when sugar in the blood rises high. This can be with increasing temperature, with infectious diseases, with a decrease in the dosage of the drug or an increase in the volume of carbohydrate food. Symptoms of hyperglycemia are not so pronounced, but the condition is also dangerous, as it can lead to the development of ketoacidosis and coma. The fact that sugar has increased, you can guess by the following signs:
- strong thirst;
- rapid urination;
- nausea, loss of appetite;
- dry skin and mucous membranes;
- strong odor of acetone from the mouth.
If you have any of these symptoms, you should immediately check the sugar level, you may need to make an additional injection of "Actrapid".
Interaction with other drugs
Insulin requires regular administration. Therefore, it often turns out that it is combined with other drugs. And it is necessary to know how insulin "Actrapid" interacts with different medications. For example, there are such drugs that weaken its hypoglycemic effect: beta-adrenoblockers, thiazide diuretics, MAO inhibitors, some hormones and nicotine. In combination with other drugs, on the contrary, the hypoglycemic effect of "Actrapid" increases. These are tetracyclines, sulfonamides, ketoconazole, Teofilin, lithium preparations and agents containing alcohol.
The patient himself will not be able to determine if this insulin is compatible with other drugs, therefore, in any matters, it is necessary to consult a doctor. With a properly prescribed dosage and observing all the features of the drug, a diabetic patient can lead a normal life.