Gastroenterocolitis acute: types, causes, symptoms and treatment
Gastroenterocolitis acute - a fairly common ailment, which belongs to the group of toxic infections. The disease is accompanied by inflammatory lesions of the digestive tract, and the foci are mainly localized in the small and large intestine. This is a dangerous condition, as the disease develops extremely rapidly. On the other hand, if properly treated, the symptoms of the disease disappear for 3-4 days.
Acute gastroenterocolitis( ICD 10):
classification Of course, patients are interested in additional information about this disease. So where in the international classification of diseases to search for acute gastroenterocolitis? The code for ICD-10 looks like K-52.
This group contains almost all types of gastroenteritis and colitis, including toxic, allergic, alimentary, and also those forms of the disease, the causes of which could not be determined.
Infectious inflammation and its pathogens
According to the ICD, acute gastroenterocolitis is a toxicoinfection. Pathogens, as well as toxic products of their vital activity, can spread through the body both through the digestive system and with the bloodstream.
Depending on the type of pathogen, acute gastroenterocolitis is divided into several groups.
- The most common form is the bacterial form of lesions. The inflammatory process occurs against the background of activity of salmonella, isherihia, Escherichia coli, Shigella and other bacteria.
- The disease can be fungal in nature - in most such cases yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida act as causative agents.
- The causes include the ingestion of viral particles, including rotavirus, ECHO virus, etc.
- Protozoan gastroenterocolitis( acute) develops against the background of penetration into the body of protozoa single-celled organisms, including amoebas, lamblia and trichomonads.
Pathogenic microorganisms can enter the human digestive system along with contaminated dairy products, canned food, unwashed vegetables and fruits. Sometimes the infection is directly transmitted from the infected animal or person to a healthy one. Also, do not eat pastries with a creamy layer, if all the rules for keeping it were not observed.
The main causes of non-infectious forms of the disease
Acute gastroenterocolitis( ICD code K-52) is not always associated with infection of the body. There are a number of other factors contributing to the onset of the disease.
- Sometimes inflammatory processes in the intestine are the result of an allergic reaction.
- Gastroenterocolitis can occur on the background of alcohol intoxication.
- To the development of the disease can result in ingestion of poisons, salts of heavy metals, alkalis, acids and other chemically aggressive substances.
- Often during the diagnosis it is found that toxic damage is associated with uncontrolled use of medications, in particular overdose of salicylic acid derivatives and diuretin.
- Allocate and so-called alimentary gastroenterocolitis. Acute inflammatory process in this case develops on the background of malnutrition, frequent overeating, the use of too sharp, hard or cold food, irregular intake, an overabundance in the diet of fiber and fat.
Types of gastroenterocolitis
Depending on the nature and characteristics of the inflammatory process, it is common to identify several forms of gastroenterocolitis:
- hemorrhagic form - accompanied by the formation of small bleeding erosions on the mucosa;
- for the catarrhal form is characterized by hyperemia and edema of the mucous membranes along with the secretion of a large amount of exudate;
- ulcerous gastroenterocolitis( acute) is accompanied by ulcerative lesions of the walls of the digestive tract;
- the phlegmous form is characterized by a purulent lesion, and the gastric mucosa most often suffers;
- fibrous form is considered quite rare and is accompanied by the formation of fibrinous films on the surface of the lining tissues of the digestive tract.
Symptoms of gastroenterocolitis
Gastroenterocolitis is an acute disease characterized by rapid progression. Typically, the disease begins with the appearance of pain in the epigastric region. Further there is a swelling, increased gas formation, a distinct and frequent rumbling in the abdomen. Many patients complain of severe heartburn, frequent eructations and an unpleasant bitter taste in their mouths.
For the disease, a characteristic decrease in appetite. Patients suffer from nausea and severe vomiting, and vomit masses can contain large undigested food pieces. In the first two days, there may be a delay in the stool, which then abruptly passes into diarrhea. In fecal masses, blood veins and lumps of mucus may be present.
There is a sharp increase in temperature - up to 38-39 degrees. When examining the patient, one can note the formation of a gray plaque in the tongue. The skin of a person becomes paler. As the disease progresses, metabolism is disrupted, the patient quickly loses weight. The list of symptoms can include headaches, muscle weakness, confusion. In severe disease, syncope is possible.
Acute gastroenterocolitis in children: features of the course of the disease
According to statistics, children are more prone to this toxic infection due to imperfections in the immune system. Naturally, the clinical picture in a small patient has some peculiarities. In particular, the disease begins with a fever - the temperature rises sharply to 38-40 degrees.
There is also a vomiting - desires arise constantly. The child complains of abdominal pain and diarrhea, and feces often contain impurities of blood. Because of the oxidative processes in the intestine, the stool can acquire a green color. A child with such symptoms should be rushed to the hospital as the children's organism is more prone to dehydration and the attendant unpleasant consequences.
Modern diagnostic methods
First of all, the doctor conducts an examination, finds out all the symptoms, collects an anamnesis. The clinical picture, as a rule, gives grounds to suspect gastroenterocolitis. Naturally, additional studies are required, including a blood test( a high number of white blood cells indicates the presence of an inflammatory process).Fecal and vomiting masses are also necessarily sent to a laboratory study - the tests make it possible to determine not only the pathogen, but also its sensitivity to these or other drugs.
In addition, it is important to determine what exactly became the source of infection( if there is a suspicion of an infectious gastroenterocolitis).The products are also sent for laboratory analysis. This is important, because after discovering exactly how the infection is transmitted, it is possible to prevent an epidemic.
Treatment of gastroenterocolitis
Treatment of acute inflammation is carried out exclusively in a hospital, namely - in the infectious disease department of the hospital. In most cases, supportive therapy is needed. If dangerous products or poisons have been consumed recently, a gastric lavage is performed. In addition, patients are assigned sorbents, as well as drugs that accelerate the excretion of toxic substances from the body( including those that appeared as a result of the metabolism of pathogenic microorganisms).
Since gastroenterocolitis is associated with a significant loss of fluids, the abundant drink and reception of "Regidron" is shown - this will help restore the water-salt balance in the body. With abundant vomiting, patients may be prescribed "Cerucal", "Reglan" or other anti-emetics( as a rule, are administered intravenously due to constant emetic spasms).But the use of antidiarrheal drugs is not recommended.
In the most severe cases, therapy can be supplemented by the use of antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal or antiparasitic drugs, although most often this is not required. As a rule, the improvement of the human condition is observed after 3-4 days after the start of treatment.
Diet as part of
therapy Undoubtedly, nutrition is an important part of therapy. Correctly composed diet will help to speed up the process of recovery of the patient. Food should be light, but at the same time provide the body with the necessary nutrients. Good on the condition of the patient will affect porridge, vegetable and fruit soups.
It is necessary to exclude from the diet fried and fatty foods, spicy and smoked foods, spices, sour fruits, in short, anything that can irritate the intestinal mucosa. Also it is necessary to strictly limit the amount of black bread, milk, various fruit compotes.
The best option is a fractional food, and you need to eat often( 6-7 times a day), but in small portions - this will ensure rapid digestion of food. Since acute gastroenterocolitis is associated with dehydration, it is necessary to observe the water balance, consuming at least 2-3 liters of purified water per day.
All these activities help not only get rid of the disease, but also restore the functions of the digestive system.