What the brain consists of: the structure
In the human body, the brain is probably one of the most mysterious and incomprehensible organs. So, scientists are still arguing about the mechanism of cogitative activity. Today we try to systematize their conclusions. Also consider what the brain consists of, what are its functions and what are the most common diseases of this organ.
General structure of
The brain protects a reliable skull. In it, the body occupies over 90% of the place. In this case, the weight of the brain in men and women is different. On average, this is 1375 grams in representatives of the stronger sex, 1275 grams - in the weaker. In newborns, the weight of the brain is 10% of the whole body, and in adults it is only 2-2.5%.The structure of the organ includes the large hemisphere, the trunk and the cerebellum.
What does the brain consist of? Science identifies the following departments of this body:
- in between.
Consider these areas in more detail. From the spinal cord takes its beginning oblong. It includes white matter( conducting channels) and gray( nuclei of nerves).Behind him there is a varioli bridge. It is a roller of transverse fibers of nerves and gray matter. Here the main artery passes. It starts at a point above the oblong one. Gradually, it passes into the cerebellum consisting of two hemispheres. It is connected in pairs with the oblong bridge, the middle brain and the cerebellum.
In the middle compartment is located on a pair of visual and auditory hillocks. Nerve fibers that connect the brain and spinal cord leave from them. Between the large hemispheres there is a deep gap, inside of which is a corpus callosum. It connects these two large departments. Hemispheres are covered with bark. It is here that the thinking activity takes place.
What does the brain consist of yet? It has three shells:
- Hard is the periosteum of the inner surface where most of the pain receptors are located.
- Spiderweb - closely adjacent to the bark, but not lining the gyrus. Between her and the hard shell is a serous fluid. Next comes the cerebrospinal fluid, and then the bark itself.
- Soft - consists of a system of blood vessels and connective tissue that feeds the brain and contacts the entire surface.
The brain processes information that comes from each of the receptors, regulates movements and engages in the thought process. Each department has its own work. For example, in the medulla oblongata nerve centers are located, which ensure the normal functioning of protective reflex mechanisms, such as coughing, blinking, sneezing and vomiting. It also includes breathing, swallowing, saliva and gastric juice.
The Varoliev Bridge provides movement of eyeballs and facial muscles. The cerebellum regulates coordination and coordination of movements. And in the middle brain, regulatory activity is carried out with respect to acuity of hearing and sight. Thanks to his work, pupils, for example, can expand and contract. That is, the tone of the eye muscles depends on it. It also includes nerve centers responsible for orientation in space.
But what does the brain consist of in between? There are several of its compartments:
- Talamus. It is also called a switch, since sensations based on pain, temperature, muscle, auditory and other receptors are processed and formed here. Thanks to this center, the states of wakefulness and sleep change.
- Hypothalamus. It controls the heart rate, blood pressure and bodily thermoregulation. Responsible for the emotional state, since from here there is an effect on the endocrine system for the production of hormones to overcome stress. It regulates the feeling of thirst, hunger and satiety, pleasure and sexuality.
- Pituitary gland. Here hormones are produced during sexual maturation, development and activity.
- Epithalamus. It consists of an epiphysis, through which daily rhythms are regulated, a healthy sleep and normal activity are ensured during the day, adaptability to various conditions. He has the ability to feel the vibrations of light waves even through the box of the skull, allocating for this purpose this or that quantity of hormones. What is the hemisphere of the brain responsible for?
The right keeps all information about the world and all-round interactions of a person. It is responsible for the activity of its right limbs. The left controls the work of speech organs. Here there is analytical, abstract thinking and various calculations. On this side, the left extremities are monitored.
Separately it is necessary to tell about such formations, as ventricles of a brain. They are emptiness, which are lined with ependyma. They are created from the cavity of the neural tube in the form of blisters, which are transformed into the ventricles of the brain. Their main function is the production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. Departments consist of a pair of lateral, third and fourth. The hemispheres are divided into 4 parts: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital.
This part is similar to the navigator on the ship. It is she who is responsible for the stay of the human body in an upright position. Here, activity, independence, initiative and curiosity are formed. A critical self-assessment can also be created. In short, the slightest disturbances that occur in the frontal lobe lead to inadequate behavior of a person, meaningless deeds, depressions and various mood swings. Management of behavior occurs through it. Therefore, the work of the control center, located here, also prevents inappropriate and antisocial behavior. The frontal lobe is important for intellectual development. Thanks to her, certain skills are also acquired, skills that can be brought to automatism.
The temporal lobes of
Here is the long-term memory store. In the left, specific names, objects, events and connections accumulate, and in the right - visual images. The temporal lobes recognize speech. At the same time, the left part deciphers the meaning of what was said, and the right-hand side - it forms the understanding and, accordingly, the mimic drawing, showing the mood and perception to others.
They perceive pain, cold or heat. The dark part consists of two parts: the right and left. As well as other compartments of the organ, they functionally differ. So, the left synthesizes separate fragments, connects them, due to which a person is able to read and write. Here, certain algorithms are mastered to achieve a particular result. The right parietal lobe converts all the information that comes from the occipital parts, and creates a three-dimensional picture. Here spatial orientation is provided, distance and the like are determined.
She perceives visual information. We see objects around as irritants, reflecting light from the retina of the eyes. Through the light signals, information about the color, movements of objects is transformed. There are three-dimensional images.
The area is susceptible to a large number of diseases. Among the most dangerous are the following:
- vascular disease;
- is a neurodegenerative disease.
Let's consider them in more detail. Tumors of the brain can be very diverse. And, like in other parts of the body, they are both benign and malignant. These formations appear because of a malfunction in the reproductive function of the cells. The control is violated. And they begin to multiply. Symptoms include nausea, pain, convulsions, loss of consciousness, hallucinations, and visual impairment.
To viral diseases include such ailments:
- Encephalitis. In a person, consciousness is confused. He always feels drowsy, there is a risk of falling into a coma.
- Viral meningitis. Headache is felt. There is a high fever, vomiting and general weakness.
- Encephalomyelitis. The patient is dizzy, motor skills are broken, the temperature rises, vomiting may occur.
When a number of diseases occur, the vessels of the brain narrow. There is a protrusion of their walls, destruction and so on. Because of this, memory can be disturbed, the head can be dizzy, pain can be felt. The blood circulation of the brain does not function well at high arterial pressure, rupture of aneurysm, heart attack and so on. And because of neurodegenerative diseases, such as the disease of Farah, Huntington or Alzheimer's, memory is broken, senses are lost, tremors in the limbs, pain, convulsions and spasms occur.
This is the structure of our mysterious organ. It is known that a person uses only a tiny fraction of the opportunities that can be realized through this body. Perhaps someday mankind will be able to reveal its potential much wider than it is today. In the meantime, scientists are trying to learn about his activities more interesting facts. Although, by the way, these attempts so far remain not very successful.