Aorta, aorta branches: description and photo
The aorta is the largest vessel of the human body that carries blood from the left ventricle and is the beginning of a large circle of circulation.
In the aorta, several departments are distinguished:
- ascending( pars ascendens aortae) department;
- arc and branches of the arch of the aorta;
- descending( pars descendens aortae) department, which, in turn, is divided into thoracic and abdominal parts.
The aortic arch and its branches
- Truncus brachiocephalicus branches off from the aortic arch at the cartilage level of the 2nd right rib. In front of him is the brachiocephalic right vein, and behind - the trachea. After the departure of the brachiocephalic trunk, the trunk is directed upwards and to the right, giving two branches in the region of the sternoclavicular right joint: the subclavian right and common right carotid artery.
- Common carotid artery( left) - one of the branches of the arch of the aorta. As a rule, this branch is longer than the common common right artery by 20-25 millimeters. The path of the artery lies behind the lumbosacral and sternocleidomastoid muscle, then up the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae. Outside the vessel are the vagus nerve and the jugular( internal) vein, inside of it lie the esophagus, trachea, pharynx, larynx, parathyroid and thyroid glands. In the region of the thyroid cartilage( its upper part), each of the common carotid arteries gives the inner and outer carotid arteries, which have approximately the same diameter. The place of division of the artery is called bifurcation, in this place also lies the intercellular glomerulus( somnolent glomus, carotid gland) - anatomical formation with dimensions of 1.5 x 2.5 mm, which is provided with a multitude of chemoreceptors and a network of capillaries. In the area of the carotid artery, there is a small extension called the sleepy sinus.
- The carotid external artery is one of the two terminal branches of the carotid artery. It is retracted from the latter in the region of the carotid triangle( the upper edge of the cartilage of the thyroid).In the beginning, it is slightly medial to the carotid internal artery, and then lateral to it. The beginning of the carotid artery lies under the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and in the region of the carotid triangle - under the subcutaneous muscle of the neck and the cervical fascia( its surface plate).Located inward from the dorsal muscle( its posterior abdomen) and the sylvoid muscle, the carotid( external) artery in the mandibula neck( in the parotid gland) is divided into a pair of terminal branches: the maxillary and temporal surface arteries. In addition, in its course the carotid outer atrium gives rise to a series of branches: the anterior group - the facial, the thyroid upper and lingual arteries, the posterior group - the ear posterior, occipital and sternocleamus-mastoid arteries, and the pharyngeal ascending artery to the middle.
The branches of the thoracic part of the aorta
This segment, as already mentioned, is part of the descending aorta. It is located in the region of the posterior mediastinum, passing along the vertebral column. The branches of the thoracic aorta are represented in two groups: parietal and visceral( internal).
Internal branches of
The visceral branches of the aorta are represented by the following groups:
- Bronchial branches( 2-4 pieces).Begin from the anterior wall of the aorta in the region of the branch of the intercostal third arteries. Entering the gates of both lungs, form the arterial intrabronchial network, blood supply to the bronchi, connective tissue structures( skeleton) of the lungs, esophagus, pericardium, the walls of the pulmonary vessels( veins and arteries).In the lung tissue, bronchial branches form anastomoses with branches of the pulmonary arteries.
- Branches of esophageal( 3-4 pieces).They have a din of about 1.5 cm and terminate in the walls of the esophagus( its thoracic segment).These branches start from the thoracic aorta in the region of 4-8 thoracic vertebrae. They form anastomoses with upper diaphragmatic, lower and upper thyroid, mediastinal arteries, and also with the coronary left cardiac artery.
- Branches of mediastenal( mediastenal) can have a variety of locations, unstable. Often go in the composition of the pericardial branches. Carry out blood supply of fiber, lymph nodes of the posterior mediastinum and the wall( posterior) of the pericardium. Anastomoses are formed with the branches described above.
- The branches of the pericardial( 1-2 pieces) are thin and short. They branch off from the anterior aortic wall, blood supplying the pericardium( its posterior wall).Anastomoses are formed with mediastinal and esophageal arteries.
Wall branches of
- Diaphragmatic upper arteries that extend from the aorta, perform a blood supply to the pleura and lumbar segment of the aorta. They unite into anastomoses with diaphragmatic inferior, internal thoracic and intercostal lower arteries.
- Intercostal arteries posterior( 10 pairs) branch off from the posterior aortic wall and follow in 3-11 intercostal spaces. The last pair passes under 12 edges( i.e., is sub-ribbed) and enters an anastomosis with lumbar arterial branches. The first and second intercostal spaces are supplied with a subclavian artery. The intercostal right arteries are slightly longer than the left ones and go under the pleura to the rib corners, located posteriorly from the posterior mediastinum, lying on the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies. At the costal heads from the intercostal arteries, the dorsal branches extend to the muscles and skin of the back, to the spinal cord( including its membranes) and the spine. From the rib corners of the artery go between the inner and outer intercostal muscles, lying in the costal groove. The arteries in the region of the 8th intercostal space and below it lie under the corresponding rib, branch into lateral branches to the muscles and skin of the lateral parts of the thorax, and then form anastomoses with intercostal fore branches from the thoracic( internal) artery.4-6 intercostal arteries give branches to the mammary glands. Intercostal upper arteries supply the chest, and the lower three - the diaphragm and the ventral wall( anterior).The third right intercostal artery gives a twig that goes to the right bronchus, and from 1-5 intercostal arteries branch out that blood supply to the left bronchus.3-6th intercostal artery gives rise to the esophageal arteries.
The branches of the abdominal part of the aorta
The ventral aortic segment is the continuation of its thoracic part. It begins at level 12 of the thoracic vertebra, passes through the aortic diaphragmatic opening and ends in the region of the 4 vertebra of the lower back. The abdominal region is located in front of the lumbar vertebrae, slightly to the left of the median line, lies retroperitoneally. To the right of it lies the hollow( lower) vein, in front - the pancreas, the horizontal segment of the duodenum and the mesenteric root of the small intestine.
The following parietal branches of the abdominal part of the aorta stand out:
- The diaphragmatic lower arteries( right and left) branch off from the abdominal aorta after leaving it from the aortic diaphragmatic aperture and follow the diaphragm( its lower plane) forward, up and to the sides.
- Lumbar arteries( 4 pieces) start from the aorta in the region of the upper 4 lumbar vertebrae, blood supply to the anterolateral abdominal surfaces, spinal cord and lower back.
- The sacral median artery departs from the aorta in the region of its division into the iliac common arteries( 5 lumbar vertebra), follows the pelvic portion of the sacrum, blood supplying the coccyx, sacrum and m.iliopsoas.
Visceral branches of
The following visceral branches of the abdominal aorta are distinguished:
- The celiac trunk originates from the aorta in the region of 12 thoracic or 1 lumbar vertebrae, between the inner diaphragmatic legs. It is projected on the median line down from the xiphoid process( its apex).In the region of the pancreas body, the celiac trunk gives off three branches: the gastric left, the hepatic general and splenic artery. Truncus coeliacus is surrounded by branches of the solar plexus and is covered in front of the parietal peritoneum.
- Adrenal middle artery is a pair of arteries, branches off from the aorta just below the celiac trunk and blood supply to the adrenal gland.
- The mesenteric superior artery branches off from the aorta around the 1st lumbar vertebra, posterior to the pancreas. Then it passes through the duodenum( its anterior surface) and gives twigs to the duodenum and pancreas, following between the leaves of the mesenteric root of the small intestine, it gives twigs for the blood supply to the small and large( right side) of the intestines.
- Arteries of the kidney origin from the 1st lumbar vertebra. These arteries give rise to the adrenal lower arteries.
- Arteries of the ovaries( testicles) extend slightly lower than the renal arteries. Passing posteriorly from the parietal peritoneum, the ureters cross, and after the iliac external arteries. In women, the ovarian arteries through the ligament that hangs the ovary, go to the fallopian tubes and ovaries, and in men - in the spermatic cord through the inguinal canal go to the testicles.
- The lower mesenteric artery branches off in the lower third of the abdominal part of the aorta around the 3 lumbar vertebra. This artery supplies the colon( the left part).
Atherosclerosis of the aorta
Atherosclerosis of the aorta and its branches is a pathology that is characterized by proliferation of plaques in the lumen of the vessels, which subsequently leads to a narrowing of the lumen and the formation of thrombi.
At the heart of the pathology is an imbalance in the ratio of lipid fractions, toward increasing cholesterol, which is deposited in the form of plaques of the aorta and branches of the aorta.
Provoking factors are smoking, diabetes mellitus, heredity, hypodynamia.
Manifestations of atherosclerosis
Often, atherosclerosis occurs without obvious symptoms, which is associated with the large size of the aorta( as well as the departments, branches of the aorta), developed muscle and elastic layers. The proliferation of plaques leads to heart overloads, which is manifested by pressure spikes, fatigue, and increased heart rate.
With the progression of pathology, the process extends to the branches of the aortic arch of the descending and ascending sections, including the arteries that feed the heart. In this case, the following symptoms occur: stenocardia( retrosternal pain that is given to the shoulder or arm, shortness of breath), digestive and renal dysfunction, blood pressure hip, coldness of the extremities, dizziness, headaches, frequent fainting, weakness in the hands.