Effective means for oral rehydration for children: a list
If a child's body loses 15 to 20% of the fluid from body weight, metabolic changes begin in the organs and tissues. An increase in the rates to 20-22% and more is fraught with a lethal outcome. To make up for the loss, dehydration means are used for oral rehydration. By the term itself is meant just replenishment of the liquid lost by the body through ordinary drinking.
As a rule, such drugs( usually supplied in the form of powders) are a medicine and contain the necessary substances( sodium, potassium, chlorine and a number of other vital substances) in the desired ratio. Timely rehydration therapy allows effectively to treat a number of childhood diseases. This takes into account the severity of dehydration.
Degree of dehydration
There are certain clinical symptoms by which one can judge the stage of dehydration of the child's body. In this case, often the initial body mass index is unknown. In total, three stages are distinguished:
- Degree of 1st degree( mild).Appears against the background of the development of acute diarrhea( 90% of cases).The mucous membrane of the mouth and the eye conjunctiva have a sufficient level of moisture. The stool is observed from 3 to 5 times a day, in rare cases vomiting occurs. Deficiency of body weight( MT) is not more than 5%.
- Dehydration of the 2nd degree( medium).That's where no means for oral rehydration simply can not do! For the 2 nd degree is characterized by frequent chair( about 10 times during the day) and vomiting. And comes in one or two days after the appearance of these symptoms. Mucous membranes are dry, the pulse is unstable, the skin loses its elasticity, there is a moderate stage of tachycardia and anxiety. You can also notice the springing of the fontanel in a moderate form.
- Degassing III degree( severe).There comes a kind of hypovolemic shock. The increased degree of dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes, the face is more like a mask, the fontanel is already sinking stronger, the enophthalmos of the eyeballs and tachycardia are pronounced, the eyelids do not close. There is also cyanosis with a characteristic marble pattern on the skin, a decrease in the temperature of the limbs. Low blood pressure, oliguria, metabolic acidosis, impaired consciousness is accompanied by a lack of response to stimuli.
Treatment procedure is carried out in two stages. At the first, the low content of liquid and electrolytes is replenished by taking oral rehydration for children.
The second stage is already prevention, in which if there is still diarrhea, the medication continues. In severe manifestations, the fluid is replaced by the intravenous route.
List of effective tools
Practically in any pharmacy there are many rehydrating agents in the form of powders, tablets or granules. And then the question may arise: what is the treatment with tablets and powders, if the child has dehydration? It should be borne in mind that with the loss of fluid, the children's body lacks salts of sodium and chlorine. In addition, other auxiliary substances are present in the composition of such medicines, which allow stimulating the immunity of the child. Improves the process of fermentation, the body has additional energy, which he spends on fighting infection.
It is not necessary to purchase all the rehydrating medications in the pharmacy, it is enough to stop your choice on a number of effective medications. Among the majority, we will select the most common means for oral rehydration. The list in this case will look like this:
- "Human Electrolyte".
It is important to pay attention to the expiration date!
This medication is most common among most rehydration medications. Produced by Orion Corporation, which is located in Finland. The pharmacy is supplied in the form of a powder, the composition of which includes:
- sodium chloride - 3.5 g;
- potassium chloride - 2.5 g;
- sodium citrate ≈ 3 g;
- glucose - 10 g.
One package contains 20 small sachets, which contain about 19 grams of white crystal powder. In water, the product dissolves well. The prepared solution is sweetish and brackish at the same time.
The oral rehydration agent for children up to one year allows to restore the acid-base balance, which is disturbed by the loss of electrolytes. This happens during the course of diarrhea or with frequent vomiting. The maintenance of acid balance at the optimal level is provided by glucose. At the same time, sodium is contained in the preparation less than potassium, which is much more. For this reason, most experts recommend it.
It should be noted that the drug has a number of contraindications. And what means of oral rehydration for children do not have them? It can not be taken if there are kidney problems, diabetes, intestinal obstruction. It is also not recommended to use "Regidron" at high blood pressure, when the patient is unconscious.
The remedy is actual in case of need to provide urgent rehydration and detoxification assistance. It will also be useful for intoxication of various manifestations of genesis, as well as for replenishment of the water-electrolyte complex. Admission of the drug allows you to adjust the metabolism of the body. And due to the balanced chemical composition, the risk of acid and electrolyte disorders is excluded.
The main feature of the drug is the content of colloidal silicon dioxide, which, in fact - a powerful sorbent. The rehydration agent has no contraindications regarding the age of the patient. That is, it can be applied to infants.
As is typical for glucose-saline solutions, the oral rehydration product for children with the name "Hydrovitum" has a specific taste that not all children like. Therefore, sometimes there are difficulties with its reception. For such cases, there is a drug with strawberry taste. Children with allergies should be given solutions that do not contain flavors and additives.
This product has a banana or fennel composition. And the first option is designed for children since birth, whereas banana composition is recommended for use only for children over 3 years old. The drug is also sold as a powder, but packaged in bags weighing 6.25 grams. In one packaging box there are 12 such sachets.
The dosage is 50-100( 150) milliliters in relation to 1 kg of the child's body weight. The main advantage of the drug lies in its pleasant taste. Means with fennel can get rid of colic and bloating. And thanks to the banana pectin in the composition, the drug binds various toxins and removes them from the body.
This preparation, in contrast to the above described, is sold in the form of tablets, 30 pieces in one package, but like others, it is dispensed without a prescription. The oral rehydration agent must first be dissolved in hot water( 2 tablets per 100 ml), after which the solution is cooled to body temperature.
"Gatrazolit" is shown to infants, that is, from the first day of their appearance. And drinking should be given in a fractional way in small portions. The amount of solution should be calculated on the basis of the following ratio: for 1 kg of body weight of the child, 90-13 milliliters is taken.
Among the pluses you can note a pleasant taste, reminiscent of chamomile due to the content of this extract. Thanks to him, the drug has a good antispasmodic effect, fights inflammation, corrects peristalsis and helps to avoid swelling of the intestine.
Rules for taking medications
As a rule, any drug sold through pharmacies has detailed instructions for use. In case of purchase of the means for oral rehydration in the form of a powder, it is indicated directly on the package. It is worthwhile to carefully read the contents of the instructions and follow them exactly. In this case, special attention should be paid to the following factors:
- In which water to dilute the preparation, at what temperature and how much is needed.
- How much solution should be taken at a time.
- What are the storage characteristics of the prepared solution.
- It is equally important to pay attention to the time it takes to store the solution.
The dosage of medications is usually indicated in the number of milliliters of solution in relation to 1 kg of the patient's weight( ml / kg).The manual contains information on cases of severe dehydration( diarrhea, frequent vomiting), including alleviation of symptoms.
For example, the weight of a child is 20 kg, and the maximum dosage is 10 ml / kg. That is, at one time he can drink a solution in the amount of 200 ml, not more. If you take into account a regular faceted glass, then fill it should be to the edge. This will be the required volume.
If suddenly for a number of different reasons, you can not get the necessary funds, you can prepare an oral rehydration remedy at home. It turns out a kind of analogue of "Regidron".This will require the following ingredients:
- Water - 0.5 L( boiled).
- Sugar - 2 tablespoons. Salt is a quarter teaspoon.
- Baking soda - as much as salt.
All this must be mixed in a liter jar. In preparation, there is nothing complicated, but before using it is better to consult with a specialist about this decision.
Usually, if you follow the dosage indicated in the drug instructions, there should be no side effects. But if after an administration of the medicine an unusual reaction is observed, it is worth consulting with the doctor who decides whether to continue taking the drug or to find another option.
Drink the child with rehydration solutions with caution, pouring into the mouth a teaspoon every 10 minutes. In some cases, you can give a small patient a sweet tea or compote as a substitute. With abundant vomiting, you need to drink your baby with a drop method. However, even if a teaspoon of the means for oral rehydration is not retained for a long time in the stomach, the solution can be frozen. Give small ice cubes you need very carefully. Usually such exposure to cold suppresses vomiting.
The use of rehydration drugs is just an addition to the main treatment by means that eliminate the causes of dehydration of the child's body.