Methods of examination of the intestine: diagnosis and effect
The intestine is the organ of the digestive system, which performs very important functions in the human body, but to date, intestinal pathologies are very common. On the foreground there is carrying out preventive gut examinations in order to prevent the development of various diseases. In this article, we'll talk about what methods of examination of the intestines the medicine offers, and discuss the merits and demerits of each of the methods.
What does the intestine need?
The intestine is an organ that is located in the abdominal cavity and participates in the digestion process. It absorbs nutrients that later enter the bloodstream. Undigested substances are excreted from the body in the form of feces together with intestinal gases.
The length of the human intestine reaches four meters. It is home to a huge number of bacteria that provide digestion processes, so it is very important that the organ's microflora is in constant balance. Otherwise, the body will fail, which will lead to the development of various pathologies. Dysfunction of the intestine can manifest itself in a variety of symptoms, among which the most obvious are rumbling in the abdomen, flatulence, pain, diarrhea, stool retention, chronic constipation, etc.
Bowel diseases tend to be infectious or parasitic in nature. Infectious pathologies include syphilis, tuberculosis, dysentery, etc.; to parasitic - scarabiasis, diphyllobothriasis, trichinosis, intestinal miases, trichocephalus, etc. To diagnose all these diseases, various methods of examination of the intestine are used.
The structure of the intestine
The anatomical structure of the organ is represented by two segments:
- small intestine,
- large intestine.
The small intestine is located between the stomach and the large intestine. In it, the process of digestion takes place. This section of the intestine is divided into the following components:
The small intestine has its name due to the fact that in comparison with the anatomical structure of the colon has less thick and strong walls. In addition, the diameter of the section of its sections is much smaller.
The large intestine is the lower part of the digestive tract, in which water is absorbed and feces are formed. Its length is approximately 1.5-2 m.
The large intestine is represented by segments:
- the caecum and the appendix,
- colon, which includes the ascending colonic, transverse, descending colon and sigmoid colon,
- rectum with the widest part and the terminaltapering part.
It should be noted that the methods of examination of the intestine are very similar both to the departments of the small intestine and to the thick sections, although there are nuances.
Actuality of the intestinal examination
To date, intestinal pathologies are very common. Unfortunately, severe diseases are often found - oncological neoplasms. Every year around 1 million new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed in the world. Half of the patients who have this disease are dying. Oncology of the intestine occupies a leading position among all malignant tumors. Therefore, it is important to conduct preventive gut examinations in order to prevent the development of diseases.
Modern diagnostic methods can detect various pathologies of the intestine at an early stage and begin immediate treatment, which increases the patient's chances of an early recovery or at least maintaining the quality of his life at a good level. More demanded is the diagnosis of diseases of the colon, because serious disorders occur in these parts of the intestine. The medicine offers patients a whole range of diagnostic methods for this organ, including:
- capsule examination,
- MRI diagnostics,
Intestinal examination with video cassette
Among all the available diagnostic methods, this method is considered the most painless and yet quite informative. The essence of the study is that the patient swallows a capsule equipped with a video camera. Getting into the human body, the "device" travels through all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, taking a photo every two seconds. Data from the chip is processed by a special program, and based on the results obtained, medical conclusions are drawn.
The procedure must be pre-prepared. On the eve of manipulation, eating is prohibited, the study is performed on an empty stomach. A device is attached to the human body, which will record the results of the study. The diagnostic procedure takes about eight hours, during which the patient leads a normal lifestyle - is engaged in his own affairs, without disturbing the daily rhythm. After examination, the capsule dissolves and is eliminated from the body in a natural way.
The most modern methods of intestinal examination today are represented by the use of video cassettes, although this method has its drawbacks. Such manipulation is very expensive. The fact is that "smart" capsules cost about 1 thousand y.e., and offer them today only two countries - Japan and Israel, leaders in the market of similar services. In the CIS countries there is as yet no production of diagnostic chips.
Endoscopy of the intestine
The endoscope is an optical device that is used in medicine for the study of human hollow organs, for example, the esophagus, stomach, intestines. In most cases, it is injected through the natural opening of the body, less often through the surgical incisions.
Endoscopic methods of examination of the intestine are prescribed when suspicions of the presence of polyps or tumor formations in the gut. Before the procedure, the patient should carefully prepare the body - clean the intestines. Today, this measure is easily accomplished through special medications. The doctor inserts an ultrasound sensor into the intestine, which allows one to examine in detail the mucosa and the condition of the walls of the organ being examined. In order to clarify the results during the procedure, biological material can be sampled for additional laboratory tests.
Endoscopic ultrasound of the large intestine is performed in most cases, except when the patient has heart and vascular disease or lungs. This is directly related to the need for special medications. However, the expediency of conducting such a study is decided individually in each specific case.
Colonoscopy is a method of research based on the use of a special device - fibrocolonoscope - a plastic bundle with an optical system. Such a study is recommended for preventive purposes to perform every five years people over forty years of age and those with heredity burdened with oncological pathologies of the intestine.
Before the procedure, it is necessary to clean the intestines with medications. Usually the colonoscopy lasts no more than 30-40 minutes, however it is rather unpleasant procedure. The patient may experience discomfort due to the fact that the intestine is filled with air, and the person has a feeling of bloating. Methods of examination of the intestine by the fibrocolonoscope also allow sampling the biomaterial for histological analysis. In addition to diagnostic functions, colonoscopy allows you to remove polyps or benign formations of small sizes. Using this technique, it is also possible to identify adhesions in the intestine. The results of the study are ready, as a rule, immediately after the manipulation.
The method of irrigoscopy is a method of examination of the intestine by means of an X-ray. Before the procedure, the patient must carefully prepare the body - clean the intestines, food intake is not allowed. Immediately before the study, a liquid is injected into the body, which contains a radiopaque drug - barium sulfate. The essence of the study boils down to the following. Entering the gastrointestinal tract, the solution fills all areas of the intestine and allows you to evaluate the contours and the degree of lumen of the intestine in the pictures. The procedure can be supplemented by another manipulation. After the contrast substance is removed from the body, air is injected into the intestine - this gives an additional opportunity to examine in detail the contours of the parts of the organ.
This technique makes it possible to diagnose fistulas, developmental malformations at birth, ulcers, scars, but it is considered not sufficiently informative. The procedure is considered conditionally safe, because in the process of research the organism is exposed to radiation load.
Intestinal examination MRI
Another method of diagnosing intestinal diseases is magnetic resonance imaging, which is based on the use of a magnetic field in the study. This procedure is painless and is considered safe, since it does not carry a radiation load on the body. On the eve it is necessary to clean the intestines, and immediately before manipulation - to introduce into the body a contrast drug. The study itself takes no more than ten minutes and allows you to detect serious disorders in the intestine, up to the malignant formations.
It should be noted that the diagnosis should be carried out in a complex manner, therefore, methods of clinical examination of the intestine are added to the above manipulations. To identify dysbiosis, a feces sample is made, in addition, rectal and bacteriological studies can be performed. The patient is taking blood - as a rule, biochemical and clinical analysis of the material is carried out. Modern methods of diagnosis, however, do not replace digital rectal examination.
Small intestine examination:
methods As noted earlier, most serious pathologies affect the colon, but small bowel disease also occurs. Diagnosis, as a rule, begins with a study of the duodenum, located between the stomach and the large intestine. For this purpose, appoint fibroscopy or endoscopy, may additionally resort to irrigoscopy or radiography. A few days before the manipulations, the patient is recommended to follow a certain diet.
With the help of endoscopy, you can not only conduct intestinal diagnostics, but also remove polyps, stop bleeding, install a probe for food intake. The most modern method of diagnosing small bowel diseases is two-column enteroscopy, which is performed under general anesthesia. This procedure is considered to be sufficiently severe and is performed only in a hospital setting. Enteroscopy is prescribed for bleeding in the area of the small intestine, with its obstruction.
Thus, capsular examination, endoscopy, colonoscopy, irrigoscopy and MRI are the basic methods by which the diagnosis and examination of the intestine is carried out. I must say that, in general, the pathological conditions of the organ are diagnosed more often in women, but it is due only to the fact that the beautiful half of humanity carefully monitors their health and consciously undergoes a medical examination for preventive purposes. There is also an opinion that such diseases are inherent in people with a wealth, because they are more likely to afford refined food.