Vaccines against human papillomavirus. At what age should I get vaccinated against HPV
Human papillomavirus( HPV) is the most commonly known genital tract infection caused by a virus. In total, there are about forty different types of this virus in the world, which can infect the genital area in both men and women, including the vulva( female external genitalia), skin on the surface of the penis, as well as the rectum and cervix. The vaccine against human papillomavirus is now very popular.
virus Certain types of HPV do not harm the human body, but others can cause a variety of malignant tumors that arise from epithelial cells and primarily in the genital area:
- Malignant tumor that develops on the cervical mucosa( oncology of the cervix) in women.
- Precancerous and pathological changes in the cervix( so-called changes in the cells of the cervix, which carry the risk of development and transformation into a malignant tumor).
- Malignant tumor of female external genitalia( cancer of the vulva and vagina).
- Condylomas( warts) in the genital area of the female and male populations.
Cervical cancer is a very serious disease that can be dangerous for a woman's life. Practically all the recorded cases( 99%) of malignant tumor development on the cervical mucosa are directly related to infection of some genitalia of women with genital mutilation. These types of human papillomavirus can alter the cells of the superficial layer of the cervical epithelium, transforming them from normal healthy into precancerous. Such changes in the absence of timely treatment may well turn into the form of malignant tumors. This type of cancer ranks second in the list of all known types of cancer that occur in the female body.
A vaccine against the human papillomavirus will help prevent it.
Genital warts( warts) appear when genital infections occur in certain types of HPV.Condylomas, as a rule, arise in the form of flesh-colored growths and irregular outlines. They are found inside or outside the surfaces of the genitals both in the male and in the female population. Condylomata of the genitals, as a rule, cause itching, pain, discomfort and sometimes even bleeding. There were cases when after their removal, they later appeared again after a while. That's how dangerous the human papillomavirus is.
Human papillomavirus can be infected by domestic or airborne droplets from person to person, but first of all infection occurs sexually. The risk of infection is susceptible to both men and women of any race and age, participating in various sexual forms of behavior, during which the contact of the genitals occurs. Most people who have contracted the human papillomavirus virus do not have any symptoms or signs of infection, and so they can unintentionally infect others with the virus. The ways of transmission of the human papillomavirus virus should be known to everyone.
People at the age of 16 to 20 are at the risk of becoming infected with HPV.This infection can sometimes be cured spontaneously, but in the chronic course of the disease, it can promote the development of a precancerous condition, and then( in 20-30 years) go into cancer.
So far, doctors and scientists have not found 100% effective and practically proven methods of treating the virus caused by the infection in question.
But there is a vaccine against the human papillomavirus. Let's consider it in more detail.
Variants of vaccination
In the world to date, two types of vaccines are licensed for the prevention of pathologies, which are caused by infection with HPV.This is Cervarix and the Gardasil vaccine.
They contain in their composition the capsid proteins, self-assembled into the form of virus-like particles. Such particles do not have any genetic viral materials in their composition and therefore are not capable of causing infection.
Both vaccines protect against HPV sixteenth and eighteenth species, which account for about 70% of the world's cases of malignant neoplasm of the cervix. In addition, the vaccine "Gardasil" protects against HPV viruses of the sixth and eleventh types, which can cause poorly manifested cervical pathologies and most anogenital warts.
Experience with HPV vaccines for HPV protection
To date, the experience of using a vaccine to protect against infectious diseases caused by HPV is practiced in most developed countries. And in some foreign countries, these vaccinations are included in national immunization programs. For example, in the United States, such vaccinations are carried out among absolutely all girls aged 11-13 years, in Germany at the age of 13-16, in France at the age of 15, and in Austria from 10 to 18 years.
The experience of applying these vaccines all over the world for many years proves their high effectiveness for prevention and complete safety.
Who is vaccinated against HPV-caused diseases
To date, vaccinations for HPV protection have been used primarily among adolescent girls and young women.
"Gardasil" is allowed for girls and boys aged 9 to 17 and young women aged 18-26.Cervarix is currently only allowed to girls and young women aged 10 to 25 years.
Age for vaccination against human papillomavirus should be discussed with your doctor.
Despite the indisputable effectiveness of these vaccines, the world still continues research on their use to protect against HPV other age groups. Over time, this will cause an increase in the age indices for the use of these vaccines.
Since 2009, the vaccination against diseases caused by HPV has been included in the preventive vaccination schedule in Moscow. In addition, vaccination is done absolutely free of charge in the clinic for adolescent girls 12-13 years of age.
Schematic diagram of vaccination against diseases caused by HPV
The standard vaccination course involves a three-time vaccination:
- For the first time, "Gardasil" is administered at any chosen day for convenience. The subsequent inoculation is done 2 months after the first injection of the vaccine. And the final vaccine, which protects against HPV, is done 6 months after the first vaccination.
- The "Cervarix" vaccine is done in the same way, but with the difference, only the second is injected a month after the first time.
The vaccine against diseases caused by human papillomavirus is administered for all age groups by injection intramuscularly at a dose of 0.5 ml.
This is confirmed by the instruction for the application of "Cervarix".
Contraindications to vaccination that protects against HPV
Before vaccination, it is necessary to consult an immunologist and family doctor. And also it is necessary to pass analyzes on revealing of a papillomavirus of the person in an organism to be assured that at the moment of planning of vaccination the person does not have the diseases caused by this infection. Only a doctor can prescribe a vaccine!
If suddenly a person is still infected with human papillomavirus at the time of vaccination, but has an easy form of the disease, it can still be vaccinated. And if the disease is already neglected and long-lasting, then the vaccination can not be done until complete recovery through the use of antiviral and immune-boosting drugs. Only after a full recovery can you be vaccinated. Here is what else is reported in the instructions for the application of "Cervarix":
- The vaccine is contraindicated in people who may have allergic reactions to any of the constituent components of the vaccine. If a person is prone to allergic reactions, then it is necessary for him to inform the therapist before taking an inoculation. If suddenly an allergic reaction occurred after the first injection of the vaccine, then further vaccinations are categorically contraindicated.
- Vaccination can not be carried out if at the moment the person has any infectious diseases in the acute stage or pathology of the organs. But contraindications to vaccination are not acute respiratory diseases.
- If a woman is prone to anaphylactic reactions, then she should definitely notify her doctor about this before introducing preventive vaccines.
Vaccination during pregnancy
During pregnancy, vaccination against human papillomavirus is categorically contraindicated due to the lack of special studies of the effect of vaccination on women during this period. Although the study of vaccination against HPV in animals has not shown negative effects on the offspring, it is not recommended that pregnant women be vaccinated.
With regard to vaccination of women during lactation, then the opinions of experts differ. From an official point of view, breastfeeding is not considered a contraindication to the vaccine against HPV, but there are those doctors who still do not recommend it, because a woman vaccinated during lactation will have to stop feeding for a few days.
Vaccination against diseases caused by human papillomavirus can be combined with vaccination against hepatitis B. For other combinations of vaccines, studies have not yet been conducted.
The price of "Gardasila" will be presented below.
Side effects of
As a rule, after the vaccination with "Cervarix" or "Gardasil", the patients did not experience any complications. Like any vaccine, a vaccination against HPV in some cases can cause anaphylactic and allergic reactions. Cases of overdose have not been documented.
As with other vaccinations, after a vaccine that protects against HPV, the patient may sometimes experience minor side effects. There may be redness and pain at the injection site. There were cases, accompanied by a general malaise after the introduction of the vaccine.
Those people who have already been vaccinated can have severe headache, dizziness, apathy and a sense of fatigue.
Vaccination for protection against diseases caused by human papillomavirus, despite the widespread myths and rumors, is safe for health, but there is still a possible possibility of infertility!
The effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccines
Protective antibodies after a full course of vaccination against HPV are found in more than 99% of vaccinated. As a result of large-scale studies and observations for 2-5 years after vaccination, almost 100% protection against cervical conditions preceding cancer was found. In 95-99% of cases, studies showed protection against anogenital warts.
What is the cost of vaccination and where can it be done?
Because of the relatively high cost, the vaccine against HPV is not included in the preventive vaccination calendar. Usually the course of the vaccination course is six months, and if for any reason the patient misses subsequent injections, then, as soon as possible, the vaccine is administered immediately. The vaccination course is considered to have been completed if the drug was completely administered within a year. So, what is the price for the drug "Gardasil" price?
In Moscow and its region, the price for a full course of vaccinations against human papillomavirus is 13-15 thousand rubles, depending on the location of the procedure and the manufacturer of the vaccine. It's quite expensive, but the result is worth it.
It is important to remember that the vaccines against human papillomavirus are suitable for prevention, but in no case for their treatment. Also, these vaccines can not protect against diseases caused by non-human papillomavirus.